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Table 1 Number of study arms using specified intervention components among clinic- based, community-based, and both clinic/community-based studies

From: A systematic review of clinic and community intervention to increase fecal testing for colorectal cancer in rural and low-income populations in the United States – How, what and when?

Intervention components grouped by strategic aim Active intervention arms grouped by study setting Referent group (usual care/ control arm)
Clinic-based Community-based Combined Clinic/ Community-based
Increase Community Demand
 Client reminder or recall 16 1 2 1
 Client incentives 0 0 1 0
 Small media 16 5 4 3
 Mass media 0 0 2 0
 Group education 0 6 1 1
 One-on-one education 11 4 3 3
Increase Community Access
  Reducing structural barriers     
▪ Provider ordered in-clinic distribution 14 1 0 12
▪ Systematic distribution by clinic staff or study team 10 2 3 7
▪ Direct mail 13 0 0 0
▪ Pre-addressed stamped envelope provided 15 1 0 1
▪ Kit available by participant request 2 1 1 1
  Reducing client out-of-pocket costs 1 2 4 1
Increase Provider Delivery of Screening Services
 Provider assessment and feedback 3 0 0 2
 Provider incentives 2 0 0 2
 Provider reminder and recall systems 6 0 0 1
Other
 Patient navigators 10 1 4 0
 Patient questionnaires or surveys about CRC screening knowledge and behaviors 5 2 0 6
 Materials tailored for specific cultures or low literacy 11 0 0 2
 Leveraging social networks 0 4 0 0
Total number of studies 20 5 2 *
Total number of study arms 27 7 4 *
  1. * N control arms: N = 20 among 20-clinic based studies; N = 4 among 5 community-based studies; N = 0 in 2 combined clinic/community-based studies