Skip to main content

Table 2 Health outcomes, costs, and incremental net monetary benefits of shifting from a 2-visit to a 1-visit approach for cervical cancer screening and treatment of precancera

From: Estimating the value of point-of-care HPV testing in three low- and middle-income countries: a modeling study

  India (GDP per capita: I$5450) Nicaragua (GDP per capita: I$4690) Uganda (GDP per capita: I$1690)
Strategyb Cancer incidence reduction, %c Lifetime cost (2011 I$)d Life expectancye INMB
(1× GDP per capita threshold)f
Cancer incidence reduction, %c Lifetime cost (2011 I$)d Life expectancye INMB
(1× GDP per capita threshold)f
Cancer incidence reduction, %c Lifetime cost (2011 I$)d Life expectancye INMB
(1× GDP per capita threshold)f
No screening 8.87
(7.05-12.54)
27.78539
(27.76486-27.79362)
42.67 (37.28-50.31) 28.58210
(28.54475-28.61306)
12.42
(10.96-14.16)
25.20221
(25.17432-25.22855)
LTFU: 10%
2-visit 62.0
(48.8-76.6)
29.68
(27.25-32.02)
27.82880
(27.82371-27.83431)
66.0
(58.9-73.6)
53.03
(48.86-56.89)
28.73581
(28.72337-28.74977)
67.4
(62.3-73.1)
45.66
(43.01-47.78)
25.33856
(25.33166-25.34855)
1-visit 65.0
(51.8-79.4)
27.32
(24.81-29.72)
27.83081
(27.82611-27.83594)
13
(11-16)
68.8
(61.7-76.3)
48.69
(44.60-52.56)
28.74246
(28.73123-28.75554)
36
(29-42)
70.1
(65.0-75.9)
37.75
(34.87-40.12)
25.34406
(25.33770-25.35278)
17
(15-19)
LTFU: 20%
2-visit 58.1
(45.1-72.8)
28.92
(26.55-31.22)
27.82567
(27.82006-27.83160)
61.9
(54.8-69.5)
53.51
(49.16-57.58)
28.72533
(28.71125-28.74107)
63.2
(58.1-68.8)
43.91
(41.45-45.79)
25.32940
(25.32187-25.34090)
1-visit 64.7
(51.4-79.1)
27.31
(24.79-29.72)
27.83013
(27.82534-27.83545)
26
(21-32)
68.2
(61.1-75.8)
48.82
(44.72-52.74)
28.74042
(28.72857-28.75389)
75
(61-88)
69.6
(64.6-75.4)
37.70
(34.81-40.07)
25.34217
(25.33572-25.35127)
28
(24-31)
LTFU: 30%
2-visit 53.5
(40.9-68.0)
28.21
(25.91-30.45)
27.82200
(27.81527-27.82855)
57.2
(50.2-64.5)
54.25
(49.76-58.61)
28.71253
(28.69672-28.73052)
58.4
(53.6-64.0)
42.21
(39.94-43.82)
25.31800
(25.30857-25.33155)
1-visit 64.3
(50.9-78.9)
27.31
(24.77-29.73)
27.82940
(27.82447-27.83494)
41
(35-54)
67.8
(60.7-75.4)
48.93
(44.80-52.87)
28.73814
(28.72585-28.75192)
125
(104-148)
69.2
(64.2-75.1)
37.65
(34.76-40.02)
25.34011
(25.33346-25.34958)
42
(35-48)
LTFU: 40%
2-visit 48.4
(36.2-62.9)
27.54
(25.26-29.73)
27.78180
(27.81012-27.82500)
51.8
(45.3-59.0)
55.24
(50.64-59.90)
28.69851
(28.68045-28.71844)
52.8
(48.3-58.3)
40.61
(38.52-41.95)
25.30545
(25.29383-25.32110)
1-visit 64.0
(50.4-78.9)
27.30
(24.74-29.73)
27.82872
(27.82352-27.83453)
59
(51-77)
67.5
(60.5-75.2)
48.99
(44.80-52.92)
28.73577
(28.72275-28.75003)
181
(153-213)
68.9
(63.8-74.8)
37.60
(34.71-39.97)
25.33789
(25.33107-25.34820)
58
(49-66)
LTFU: 50%
2-visit 42.6
(31.3-56.2)
26.92
(24.71-29.22)
27.81361
(27.80433-27.82065)
45.6
(39.5-52.2)
56.62
(51.93-61.68)
28.68319 (28.66223-28.70486) 46.4
(42.4-51.5)
39.08
(27.19-40.42)
25.29166
(25.27809-25.30957)
1-visit 63.9
(50.2-78.9)
27.29
(24.70-29.70)
27.82818
(27.82289-27.83407)
79
(69-105)
67.2
(60.2-75.0)
49.01
(44.81-52.95)
28.73386 (28.72017-28.74855) 245
(211-289)
68.6
(63.5-74.5)
37.54
(34.66-39.91)
25.33606
(25.32892-25.34684)
77
(65-88)
LTFU: 60%
2-visit 35.7
(25.7-47.8)
26.39
(24.31-28.90)
27.80868
(27.79781-27.81552)
38.3
(32.9-44.2)
58.38
(53.62-63.84)
28.66565
(28.65149-28.68919)
39.1
(35.4-43.6)
37.66
(35.86-39.03)
25.27631
(25.26027-25.29619)
1-visit 63.7
(49.9-78.7)
27.28
(24.69-29.71)
27.82763
(27.82222-27.83379)
102
(88-137)
67.0
(60.0-74.9)
49.04
(44.83-52.96)
28.73182
(28.71765-28.74704)
320
(279-377)
68.4
(63.2-74.3)
37.49
(34.60-39.87)
25.33429
(25.32690-25.34550)
98
(84-113)
LTFU: 70%
2-visit 28.2
(20.3-37.9)
25.89
(23.96-28.62)
27.80362
(27.79067-27.81054)
30.2
(26.0-35.2)
60.44
(55.49-66.41)
28.64712
(28.62014-28.67254)
30.9
(27.9-34.7)
36.33
(34.63-37.76)
25.26014
(25.32487-25.34428)
1-visit 63.5
(49.6-78.7)
27.27
(24.68-29.69)
27.82722
(27.82182-27.83347)
127
(106-174)
66.9
(59.9-74.8)
49.04
(44.82-52.97)
28.72980
(28.71518-28.74542)
399
(350-468)
68.3
(63.1-74.2)
37.44
(34.55-39.82)
25.33251
(25.32487-25.34428)
121
(105-140)
  1. aAverage values represent the outcomes using 50 calibrated parameter sets for each country; parentheses indicate the minimum and maximum values across 50 calibrated parameter sets. GDP: gross domestic product; I$: international dollars; INMB: incremental net monetary benefit; LTFU: loss to follow-up
  2. bStrategies are listed in order of increasing health benefit, and include either 2-visit screen-and-treat or 1-visit screen-and-treat for women aged 30, 35, and 40 years. Under both strategies, screening coverage was 100%, with LTFU for each clinical encounter. For the 2-visit strategy, LTFU applied to the results/treatment visit; for both strategies, LTFU applied to diagnostic testing with colposcopy and treatment of colposcopically confirmed CIN1+ for women who were not eligible for immediate cryotherapy at a primary facility
  3. cCancer incidence reduction reflects the percent reduction in lifetime risk of cancer incidence compared to no screening
  4. dTotal discounted lifetime cost per woman
  5. eTotal discounted life expectancy
  6. fThe INMB for 1-visit screen-and-treat is calculated against 2-visit screen-and-treat, at the specified level of LTFU. The INMB for 1-visit screen-and-treat provides a measure of how much economic investment could be made per woman to achieve a reduction in visits (relative to the 2-visit screen-and-treat scenario) without exceeding a country’s willingness to pay (WTP), at each level of LTFU. We considered each country’s WTP to be equivalent to GDP per capita