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Table 2 Surgical Outcomes and Post Operative Complications

From: Thoracoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy with radical lymph node dissection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the left lateral decubitus position: a single center retrospective analysis of 654 patients

  Early (n = 289) Late (n = 365) p
Thoracic operative time (min), mean (SD) 210.1 (70.4) 201.1 (64.3) 0.10
Thoracic blood loss (ml), mean (SD) 174.0 (285.0) 94.2 (117.2) <0.001
Blood transfusion (ml), mean (SD) 108.7 (1346.8) 19.0 (204.5) 0.26
Extubation (days after surgery), mean (SD) 0.19 (1.04) 0.16 (1.73) 0.61
Postoperative length of stay (days), mean (SD) 33.4 (29.8) 20.0 (13.1) <0.001
Number of retrieved thoracic lymph nodes, mean (SD) 20.0 (13.4) 28.4 (12.1) <0.001
Number of retrieved total lymph nodes, mean (SD) 43.3 (24.3) 56.1 (24.1) <0.001
Overall Complications, n (%) 77 (26.6) 47 (12.9) <0.0001
Surgical Complications
 Chylothorax, n (%) 8 (2.8) 7 (1.9) 0.93
 Anastomotic leakage, n (%) 40 (13.9) 6 (1.6) <0.0001
 Postoperative bleeding, n (%) 6 (2.1) 8 (2.2) 0.92
 Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, n (%) 4 (1.4) 5 (1.4) 0.99
Non-Surgical Complications
 Arrhythmia, n (%) 3 (1.0) 13 (3.6) 0.04
 Pneumonia, n (%) 26 (9.0) 25 (6.8) 0.24
 Reoperation within 30 days, n (%) 9 (3.1) 5 (1.4) 0.13
 Mortality within 30 days, n (%) 4 (1.4) 0 (0) 0.02