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Table 2 Circulating cell-free miRNA biomarkers for prostate cancer

From: Detection of circulating miRNAs: comparative analysis of extracellular vesicle-incorporated miRNAs and cell-free miRNAs in whole plasma of prostate cancer patients

miRNA Expression in PC tissues Level in blood
Direction Ref. Sample type Patient groups and sample size Direction Normalisation Ref.
Let-7a-5p Down in PC vs adj. Normal tissues [45] Serum PC (n = 75), BPH (n = 27) Down in PC RNA input and miR-16, miR-425 [52]
Down in PC vs BPH [44] Serum High grade PC (n = 50), low grade PC (n = 50), BPH (n = 50) Down in high grade PC vs low grade PC, BPH RNA input and spike-ins [12]
   Serum Disseminated PC (n = 20), BPH (n = 13) Up in disseminated PC Spike-in and miR-320a [37]
miR-21-5p Up in PC vs adj. Normal (n = 10) [55] Plasma mCRPC (n = 25, pooled), LPC (n = 25, pooled) Up in mCRPC miR-30e [40]
Similar in PC and adj. Normal tissues (n = 36) [56] Serum ADPC (n = 20), HRPC (n = 10), LPC (n = 20), BPH (n = 6) Up in HRPC vs ADPC, LPC U6 snRNA [42]
Up in PC vs normal tissues [57] Plasma PC (n = 51), HC (n = 20) Up in PC RNU1A snRNA [43]
miR-30c-5p Up in PC vs adj. Normal epithelium (n = 37) [58] Serum High grade PC (n = 50), low grade PC (n = 50), BPH (n = 50) Down in high grade PC vs low grade, BPH RNA input and spike-ins [12]
Up in PC vs normal tissues [57] Plasma PC (n = 80), BPH (n = 44), HC (n = 54) Down in PC vs BPH, HC U6 snRNA [11]
Serum PC (n = 36), HC (n = 12) Down in PC RNA input [51]
miR-106a-5p Up in PC vs normal tissues [57] Serum High grade PC (n = 50), low grade PC (n = 50), BPH (n = 50) Down in high grade PC RNA input and spike-ins [12]
Serum PC (n = 36), HC (n = 12) Up in PC RNA input [51]
miR-141-3p Up in mPC, PC vs normal tissues [53] Serum High grade PC (n = 50), low grade PC (n = 50), BPH (n = 50) Detectable in <50% of patients RNA input and spike-ins [12]
Up in PC vs BPH [52] Serum PC (n = 75), BPH (n = 27) Up in PC RNA input and miR-16, miR-425 [52]
Up in BCR after RP vs. no BCR after RP [59] Plasma mCRPC (n = 25, pooled), LPC (n = 25, pooled) Up in mCRPC miR-30e [40]
Serum mCRPC (n = 26), low-risk LPC (n = 28) Up in mCRCP U6 snRNA [53]
Up in PC (n = 36) vs normal tissue (n = 36) [54] Plasma EVs PC (n = 78), HC (n = 28) Up in PC Spike-ins [38]
Serum EVs mPC (n = 47), non-recurrent PC (n = 72) Up in mPC
Serum 71 PC: N1 (n = 48), N0 (n = 23), GS ≥8 (n = 29), GS = 7 (n = 42) Up in N1 PC vs N0 PC; Up in GS ≥ 8 vs GS = 7 Spike-ins [54]
Plasma mPC (n = 25), LPC (n = 26) Up in mPC vs LPC; Similar in PC and HC RNU1A snRNA [43]
Serum mPC (n = 25), HC (n = 25) Up in mPC Spike-ins [60]
Serum PC (n = 54), non-malignant (n = 79) Up in higher GS; Similar in PC and non-malignant RNU1–4 and SNORD43 [61]
miR-200c-3p Up in PC vs normal tissue [62] Plasma mCRPC (n = 25, pooled), LPC (n = 25, pooled) Up in mCRPC miR-30e [40]
Serum mCRPC (n = 25), HC (n = 25) Up in mCRCP Spike-ins [41]
miR-210-3p Up in PC vs BPH [44] Serum PC (n = 31), BPH (n = 13) Up in PC Spike-in and miR-320a [37]
Serum mCRPC (n = 21), HC (n = 20) Up in mCRCP Spike-ins [41]
miR-223-3p Up in PC vs adj. Normal tissues (n = 10) [63] Serum High grade PC (n = 50), low grade PC (n = 50), BPH (n = 50) Down in high grade PC vs low grade, BPH RNA input and spike-ins [12]
Up in PC vs normal tissues [57] Serum PC (n = 36), HC (n = 12) Down in PC RNA input [51]
miR-375 Up in mPC, PC vs normal tissues [53] Plasma EVs CRPC (n = 100) High miRNA level associated with poor OS RNA input and miR-30a-5p, miR-30e-5p [39]
Serum PC (n = 31), BPH (n = 13) Up in PC Spike-in and miR-320a [37]
Up in PC (n = 36) vs normal tissue (n = 36) [54] Plasma mCRPC (n = 25, pooled), LPC (n = 25, pooled) Up in mCRPC miR-30e [40]
Serum mCRPC (n = 26), low-risk LPC (n = 28) Up in mCRCP U6 snRNA [53]
Serum EVs mPC after RP (n = 47), non-recurrent PC after RP (n = 72) Up in mPC Spike-ins [38]
Serum 71 PC: N1 (n = 48), N0 (n = 23), GS ≥8 (n = 29), GS = 7 (n = 42) Up in N1 PC vs N0 PC; similar in GS ≥ 8 and GS = 7 Spike-ins [54]
  1. ADPC androgen-dependent prostate cancer, BCR biochemical recurrence, BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia, CRPC castration resistant prostate cancer, EVs extracellular vesicles, HC healthy control, HRPC hormone-refractory prostate cancer, LPC localized prostate cancer, mCRPC metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, mPC metastatic prostate cancer, PC prostate cancer, RP radical prostatectomy