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Table 4 Factors associated with hr.-HPV infection in bivariate analyses, stratified by HIV serostatus

From: Epidemiology of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected Ghanaian women

VARIABLES HIV-1 seropositive women HIV seronegative women
hr-HPV (N = 105) n (%) RR (95% CI) P-value hr-HPV (N = 51) n (%) RR (95% CI) P-value
Age, years
  ≤ 29 10 (90.9) 1   6 (30.0) 1  
 30–59 89 (64.0) 0.6 (0.5–0.7) <0.0001 38 (29.5) 1.1 (0.5–2.1) 0.94
  > 60 6 (60.0) 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.02 7 (35.0) 1.2 (0.5–3.2) 0.64
Age at first sex, years categorical
  ≤ 18 48 (57.8) 1   22 (29.3) 1  
  > 18 57 (74.0) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 0.03 29 (30.9) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.83
Lifetime number of sexual partners
 1 9 (81.8) 1   8 (25.8) 1  
  ≥ 2 96 (64.4) 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 0.49 43 (31.2) 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 0.57
Circumcision status of main/current partner
 Circumcised 97 (64.7) 1   45 (28.5) 1  
 Not circumcised 8 (80.0) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) <0.0001 6 (54.6) 1.9 (1.1–3.5) 0.03
Smoking history
 Never smoked 101 (65.2) 1   50 (29.9) 1  
 Smokers (Ex/current) 4 (80.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.38 1 (50.0) 1.7 (0.9–3.8) 0.47
Hormonal contraceptive history
 Ever used 40 (63.5) 1   23 (32.4) 1  
 Never used 65 (67.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.3) 0.66 28 (28.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.4) 0.63