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Table 1 Characteristics and laboratory findings of enrolled participants in Cape Coast, Ghana

From: Epidemiology of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected Ghanaian women

VARIABLES HIV-1 seropositive (N = 163) HIV seronegative (N = 170) P-value
n (%), or mean/median (SD or IQR) n (%), or mean/median (SD or IQR)
Age, years    0.03
 Mean (SD) 43.8 (9.4) 44.3 (12.8)  
  ≤ 29 11 (6.8) 21 (12.4)  
 30–59 142 (87.1) 129 (75.9)  
  > 60 10 (6.1) 20 (11.8)  
Marital status    <0.0001
 Currently with a regular sexual partner 70 (42.9) 126 (74.1)  
 Currently without a regular sexual partner 93 (57.1) 44 (25.9)  
Education    <0.0001
 No formal education 40 (24.5) 28 (16.5)  
 Up to secondary school level 117 (71.8) 75 (44.1)  
 Tertiary level 6 (3.7) 67 (39.4)  
Employment    <0.0001
 Unemployed 14 (8.6) 14 (8.2)  
 Unskilled occupation 137 (84.1) 89 (52.4)  
 Skilled occupation 12 (7.4) 67 (39.4)  
Age at first sex, years Categorical    0.16
 Median (IQR) 18 (17–20) 19 (18–21)  
  ≤ 15 7 (4.3) 6 (3.5)  
 16–20 127 (77.9) 119 (70.0)  
  ≥ 21 29 (17.8) 45 (26.5)  
Lifetime no. sexual partners    0.004
 Median 3 (2–4) 3 (2–3)  
 1 11 (6.8) 31 (18.2)  
 2–5 139 (85.3) 131 (77.1)  
  > 5 13 (8.0) 8 (4.7)  
Circumcision main/current partner    0.90
 Circumcised 153 (93.9) 159 (93.5)  
 Not circumcised 10 (6.1) 11 (6.5)  
Smoking    0.09
 Ever/Current 5 (3.1) 1 (0.6)  
 Never smoked 158 (96.9) 169 (99.4)  
Hormonal contraception    0.57
 Ever/Current 64 (39.3) 72 (42.4)  
 Never used 99 (60.7) 98 (57.6)  
Cytology    <0.0001
 Normal 140 (85.9) 168 (98.8) <0.0001
 ASCUS 12 (7.4) 1 (0.6) 0.001
 LSIL 8 (4.9) 1 (0.6) 0.02
 HSIL/ASC-H 3 (1.8) 0 (0) 0.07
HPV DNA 120/160 (75.0) 72/169 (42.6) <0.0001
  1. SD Standard Deviation, IQR Interquartile Range, ASCUS Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, LSIL Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions, HSIL High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions, ASC-H atypical squamous cells cannot rule out HSIL