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Table 1 Associations between the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients and SMAD as indicated by the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test

From: Development and external validation of nomograms to predict the risk of skeletal metastasis at the time of diagnosis and skeletal metastasis-free survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Characteristic Number (%) Training cohort   P-value Validation cohort Number (%)
   SMAD   
   Absent Present   
Age, years     0.379  
  < 45 1404 (52.3%) 1311 (93.4%) 93 (6.6%)   679 (51.1%)
  ≥ 45 1281 (47.7%) 1185 (92.5%) 96 (7.5%)   650 (48.9%)
Sex     0.025  
 Male 2131 (79.4%) 1969 (92.4%) 162 (7.6%)   986 (74.2%)
 Female 554 (20.6%) 527 (95.1%) 27 (4.9%)   343 (25.8%)
Smoking Status     0.055  
 Absent 1708 (63.3%) 1600 (93.7%) 108 (6.3%)   795 (59.8%)
 Present 977 (36.4%) 896 (91.7%) 81 (8.3%)   534 (40.2%)
Drinking Status     0.873  
 Absent 2382 (88.7%) 2215 (93.0%) 167 (7.0%)   1117 (84.0%)
 Present 303 (11.3%) 281 (92.7%) 22 (7.3%)   212 (16.0%)
Family history     0.566  
 Absent 1926 (71.7%) 1787 (92.8%) 139 (7.2%)   967 (72.8%)
 Present 759 (28.3%) 709 (93.4%) 50 (6.6%)   362 (27.2%)
Calcium, mmol/L     0.932  
  < 2.4 1370 (51.0%) 1273 (92.9%) 97 (7.1%)   501 (37.7%)
  ≥ 2.4 1315 (49.0%) 1223 (93.0%) 92 (7.0%)   828 (62.3%)
Phosphorus, mmol/L     0.587  
  < 1.15 1398 (52.1%) 1296 (92.7%) 102 (7.3%)   676 (50.9%)
  ≥ 1.15 1287 (47.9%) 1200 (93.2%) 87 (6.8%)   653 (49.1%)
Magnesium, mmol/L     0.308  
  < 0.93 1410 (52.2%) 1304 (92.5%) 106 (7.5%)   919 (69.1%)
  ≥ 0.93 1275 (47.5%) 1192 (93.5%) 83 (6.5%)   410 (30.9%)
CRP, mg/L     < 0.001  
  < 1.91 1345 (50.1%) 1283 (95.4%) 62 (4.6%)   722 (54.3%)
  ≥ 1.91 1340 (49.9%) 1213 (90.5%) 127 (9.5%)   607 (45.7%)
WBCs, ×109     0.137  
  < 6.9 1376 (51.2%) 1289 (93.7%) 87 (6.3%)   677 (50.9%)
  ≥ 6.9 1309 (48.8%) 1207 (92.2%) 102 (7.8%)   652 (49.1%)
Neutrophils, ×109     0.001  
  < 4.2 1356 (50.5%) 1283 (94.6%) 73 (5.4%)   691 (52.0%)
  ≥ 4.2 1329 (49.5%) 1213 (91.3%) 116 (8.7%)   638 (48.0%)
HGB, g/L      
  < 145 1379 (51.4%) 1264 (91.7%) 115 (8.3%) 0.007 758 (57.0%)
  ≥ 145 1306 (48.6%) 1232 (94.3%) 74 (5.7%)   571 (43.0%)
Platelets, ×109     0.013  
  < 229 1343 (50.0%) 1265 (94.2%) 78 (5.8%)   638 (48.0%)
  ≥ 229 1342 (50.0%) 1231 (91.7%) 111 (8.3%)   691 (52.0%)
ALT, U/L     0.392  
  < 22.2 1345 (50.1%) 1256 (93.4%) 89 (6.6%)   725 (54.6%)
  ≥ 22.2 1340 (49.9%) 1240 (92.5%) 100 (7.5%)   604 (45.4%)
AST, U/L     0.092  
  < 21 1366 (50.9) 1281 (93.8%) 85 (6.2%)   675 (50.8%)
  ≥ 21 1319 (49.1%) 1215 (92.1%) 104 (7.9%)   654 (49.2%)
ALP, U/L     < 0.001  
  < 70 1357 (50.5%) 1304 (96.1%) 53 (3.9%)   744 (56.0%)
  ≥ 70 1328 (49.5%) 1192 (89.8%) 136 (10.2%)   585 (44.0%)
LDH, U/L     < 0.001  
  < 172.2 1344 (50.1%) 1287 (95.8%) 57 (4.2%)   706 (53.1%)
  ≥ 172.2 1341 (49.9%) 1209 (90.2%) 132 (9.8%)   623 (46.9%)
ALB, g/L     0.003  
  < 44.9 1351 (50.3%) 1236 (91.5%) 115 (8.5%)   576 (43.3%)
  ≥ 44.9 1334 (49.7%) 1260 (94.5%) 74 (5.5%)   753 (56.7%)
GLB, g/L     0.507  
  < 30.5 1341 (49.9%) 1251 (93.3%) 90 (6.7%)   793 (59.7%)
  ≥ 30.5 1344 (50.1%) 1245 (92.6%) 99 (7.4%)   536 (40.3%)
Cholesterol, mmol/L     0.054  
  < 5.12 1353 (50.4%) 1245 (92.0%) 108 (8.0%)   576 (43.3%)
  ≥ 5.2 1332 (49.6%) 1251 (93.9%) 81 (6.1%)   753 (56.7%)
T lymphocytes, ×109     0.289  
  < 1.8 1392 (51.8%) 1287 (92.5%) 105 (7.5%)   622 (46.8%)
  ≥ 1.8 1293 (48.2%) 1209 (93.5%) 84 (6.5%)   707 (53.2%)
Monocytes, ×109     0.005  
  < 0.4 1385 (51.6%) 1306 (94.3%) 79 (5.7%)   462 (34.8%)
  ≥ 0.4 1300 (48.4%) 1190 (91.5%) 110 (8.5%)   867 (65.2%)
Pathology     0.852  
 Undifferentiated 2592 (96.5%) 2410 (93.0%) 182 (7.0%)   1300 (97.8%)
 Differentiated 93 (3.5%) 86 (92.5%) 7 (7.5%)   29 (2.2%)
Cranial nerve injury     0.730  
 Absent 2498 (93.0%) 2321 (92.9%) 177 (7.1%)   1234 (92.9%)
 Present 187 (7.0%) 175 (93.6%) 12 (6.4%)   95 (7.1%)
EBV-DNA, copies/ml     < 0.001  
  < 1000 1130 (42.1%) 1092 (96.6%) 38 (3.4%)   526 (39.6%)
 1000–9999 585 (21.8%) 555 (94.9%) 30 (5.1%)   265 (19.9%)
 10,000–99,999 599 (22.3%) 555 (92.7%) 44 (23.3%)   325 (24.5%)
 100,000–999,999 290 (10.8%) 245 (84.5%) 45 (15.5%)   156 (11.7%)
  ≥ 1,000,000 81 (3.0%) 49 (60.5%) 32 (39.5%)   57 (4.3%)
T category     0.804  
 1 167 (6.2%) 158 (94.6%) 37 (5.4%)   81 (6.1%)
 2 525 (19.6%) 488 (93.0%) 37 (7.0%)   328 (24.7%)
 3 1374 (51.2%) 1278 (93.0%) 96 (7.0%)   630 (47.4%)
 4 619 (23.1%) 572 (92.4%) 47 (7.6%)   290 (21.8%)
N category     < 0.001  
 0 319 (11.9%) 312 (97.8%) 7 (2.2%)   250 (18.8%)
 1 921 (34.3%) 887 (96.3%) 34 (3.7%)   449 (33.8%)
 2 775 (28.9%) 697 (89.9%) 78 (10.1%)   370 (27.8%)
 3 549 (20.4%) 494 (90.0%) 55 (10.0%)   243 (18.3%)
 4 121 (4.5%) 106 (87.6%) 15 (12.4%)   17 (1.3%)
Radiotherapy technique     0.451  
 IMRT +3DCRT 1341(49.9%) 1252 (93.4%) 89 (6.6%)   705(65.9%)
 CRT 1344(51.1%) 1244 (92.6%) 100 (7.4%)   624(34.1%)
Treatment method     P < 0.001  
 Radiotherapy 505(18.8%) 481 (95.2%) 24 (4.8%)   318 (24.1%)
 CCRT 1136 (42.3%) 1086 (95.6%) 50(4.4%)   425 (32.2%)
 Neo + radiotherapy 483 (18.0%) 419 (86.7%) 64 (13.3%)   265 (20.1%)
 Neo + CCRT 561(20.9%) 510 (90.9%) 51(9.1%)   311 (23.5%)
SMAD      
 Absent 2496 (93.0%)     1231 (92.6%)
 Present 189 (7%)     98 (7.4%)
  1. Abbreviations: SMAD skeletal metastasis at time of diagnosis, WBCs white blood cells, HGB hemoglobin, GLB globulin, ALB albumin, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, CRP C-reactive protein, GGT gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, EBV-DNA Epstein-Barr virus DNA, Undifferentiated undifferentiated non-keratinizing carcinoma, Differentiated differentiated carcinoma, CRT conventional radiotherapy, IMRT intensity modulated radiation therapy, 3D–CRT three dimensional conformal radiation therapy, RT radiotherapy, CCRT concurrent radiotherapy, Neo neoadjuvant chemotherapy