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Table 2 Factors associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in the entire sample of patients with ypT0-3N0 rectal cancer

From: Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer with ypT0-3N0 after preoperative chemoradiation therapy and surgery

  Disease-free survival Overall survival
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value
Age, years   0.002   0.013   0.001   <0.001
 < 70 1   1   1   1  
 ≥ 70 2.091 (1.299–3.366) 1.944 (1.148–3.293) 3.026 (1.584–5.780) 3.606 (1.848–7.038)
Sex   0.226     0.051   
 Female 1     1    
 Male 1.393 (0.814–2.384)    2.549 (0.998–6.511)   
Distance from AV (cm)   0.122     0.302   
 ≥ 10.0 1     1    
 5.0–9.9 0.754 (0.340–1.674)    0.683 (0.220–2.122)   
 < 5.0 1.256 (0.591–2.668)    1.184 (0.407–3.443)   
Differentiation   0.646     0.327   
 Well 1     1    
 Moderate 1.045 (0.591–1.848)    1.103 (0.480–2.536)   
 Poor, mucinous 1.493 (0.607–3.677)    2.202 (0.692–7.010)   
Pretreatment CEA (ng/mL)   0.005   0.057   0.088   
 < 5 1   1   1    
 ≥ 5 1.877 (1.207–2.918) 1.628 (0.985–2.692) 1.717 (0.923–3.196)   
Surgical procedure   0.001   <0.001   0.008   0.059
 LAR 1   1   1   1  
 APR 2.492 (1.480–4.196) 3.919 (1.996–7.697) 2.538 (1.272–5.064) 2.007 (0.974–4.135)
Stage   0.005   0.047   0.007   0.007
 ypT0 1   1   1   1  
 ypT1 2.234 (0.688–7.256) 1.876 (0.505–6.972) 5.049 (1.018–25.046) 4.853 (0.977–24.109)
 ypT2 2.317 (1.066–5.038) 2.661 (1.193–5.936) 1.872 (0.483–7.261) 1.488 (0.379–5.842)
 ypT3 3.555 (1.732–7.295) 2.917 (1.354–6.284) 5.340 (1.612–17.684) 4.742 (1.419–15.843)
LN dissected   0.119     0.100   
 ≥ 12 1     1    
 < 12 1.421 (0.913–2.212)    1.691 (0.904–3.166)  
LVI/PNI   0.005   0.023   0.445   
 Negative 1   1   1    
 Positive 3.047 (1.391–6.678) 2.606 (1.144–5.938) 1.753 (0.415–7.401)   
Margin   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
 Negative 1   1   1   1  
 Positive 9.165 (4.653–18.050) 6.348 (2.786–14.467) 10.374 (4.546–23.673) 7.933 (3.351–18.779)
Mandard regression grade   0.004     0.050   
 Grade 1 1     1    
 Grade 2 2.503 (1.146–5.466)    3.040 (0.823–11.230)   
 Grade 3 3.324 (1.538–7.185)    3.467 (0.938–12.809)   
 Grade 4 4.434 (1.894–10.378)    6.702 (1.731–25.946)   
Adjuvant chemotherapy   0.742     0.603   
 No 1     1    
 Yes 0.921 (0.562–1.507)    0.835 (0.423–1.648)   
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, AV anal verge, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, LAR lower anterior resection, APR abdomino-perineal resection, LN lymph node, LVI lymphovascular invasion, PNI perineural invasion