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Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 48)

From: Innovative dressing and securement of tunneled central venous access devices in pediatrics: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Standard Care ISD TA SSD Total
Group size 11 (23%) 12 (25%) 12 (25%) 13 (27%) 48 (100%)
Participant characteristics
Age (years) a 3.1 6.2 4.9 5.0 4.8
(1.7–14.5) (1.7–11.7) (1.0–11.6) (2.5–8.8) (1.8–11.6)
Sex (male) 7 (64%) 4 (33%) 8 (67%) 10 (77%) 29 (60%)
Skin integrity:
 good 3 (27%) 4 (33%) 7 (58%) 7 (54%) 21 (44%)
 fair 6 (55%) 5 (42%) 4 (33%) 4 (31%) 19 (40%)
 poor 2 (18%) 3 (25%) 1 (8%) 2 (15%) 8 (17%)
Skin type (white) 8 (73%) 6 (50%) 10 (83%) 8 (62%) 32 (67%)
Comorbidities:
 none 1 (9%) 0 (0%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 3 (6%)
 one 7 (64%) 8 (67%) 8 (67%) 9 (69%) 32 (67%)
 two or more 3 (27%) 4 (33%) 3 (25%) 3 (23%) 13 (27%)
Diagnosis:
 oncology / hematology 8 (73%) 10 (83%) 10 (83%) 11 (85%) 39 (81%)
 medical 2 (18%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 5 (10%)
 surgical 1 (9%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 4 (8%)
Infection on recruitment 1 (9%) 2 (17%) 2 (17%) 1 (8%) 6 (12%)
Leucocytes <1,000 / μL 0 (0%) 3 (25%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%) 4 (8%)
CVAD insertion characteristics
CVAD placement:
 internal jugular 9 (82%) 7 (58%) 7 (58%) 6 (46%) 29 (60%)
 subclavian 2 (18%) 4 (33%) 5 (42%) 7 (54%) 18 (38%)
 femoral 0 (0%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%)
Subsequent insertion 4 (36%) 7 (58%) 5 (42%) 4 (31%) 20 (42%)
No. of lumens:
 one 2 (18%) 0 (0%) 2 (17%) 0 (0%) 4 (8%)
 two 8 (73%) 9 (75%) 8 (67%) 11 (85%) 35 (75%)
 three 1 (9%) 3 (25%) 2 (17%) 2 (15%) 8 (17%)
Multiple insertion attempts 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 3 (23%) 3 (6%)
Ultrasound use 4 (36%) 7 (58%) 4 (33%) 4 (31%) 19 (40%)
External length at insertion (cm) b 12.3 (2.5) 15.4 (7.5) 13.3 (3.9) 13.3 (2.0) 13.6 (4.5)
CVAD utility characteristics
Received continuous intravenous therapy c 4 (36%) 1 (8%) 5 (42%) 6 (46%) 16 (33%)
Received parenteral nutrition and/or lipids c 4 (36%) 4 (33%) 1 (8%) 2 (15%) 11 (23%)
Received chemotherapy c 9 (82%) 8 (67%) 7 (58%) 10 (77%) 34 (71%)
Received blood products c 4 (36%) 4 (33%) 2 (17%) 6 (46%) 16 (33%)
Received antibiotics c 6 (55%) 7 (58%) 1 (8%) 9 (69%) 23 (48%)
Confused, agitated or drowsy d 1 (9%) 3 (25%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 4 (8%)
CVAD dwell time (days) a, c 14.1 9.0 8.6 17.1 12.4
(5.0–27.9) (4.5–16.5) (4.1–21.5) (9.0–27.0) (5.6–26.0)
  1. n (%) shown unless otherwise noted
  2. CVAD Central venous access device, ISD Integrated securement dressing, SSD Suture-less securement device, TA Tissue adhesive, μL microlitre
  3. a median (25th and 75th percentiles); percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding; percentages were calculated using the number of non-missing values in the denominator
  4. b mean and standard deviation
  5. c during study period
  6. d at study completion