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Table 2 Comparison of the aggressiveness of EOL care and cost between the HC and non-HC groups in the LML

From: Predictors of high healthcare costs in elderly patients with liver cancer in end-of-life: a longitudinal population-based study

Variables Total Non-HC group HC group p value
Number, n (%) 2121 1909(90%) 212(10%)  
ICU admission 308(14.5%) 174(9.1%) 134(62.9%) <0.001
Intubation 252(11.9%) 168(8.8%) 84(39.4%) <0.001
Mechanical ventilation 308(14.5%) 194(10.2%) 114(53.5%) <0.001
Admission days 10.7 ± 10.9 9.1 ± 10.1 25.0 ± 6.1 <0.001
Admission times 0.8 ± 0.7 0.8 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.4 <0.001
ER visit (times) 0.7 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 0.9 0.694
Receiving anti-cancer therapy as below 155(7.3%) 108(5.7%) 47(22.1%) <0.001
 TACE 75(3.5%) 56(2.9%) 19(8.9%) <0.001
 Radiotherapy 57(2.7%) 34(1.8%) 23(10.8%) <0.001
 Chemotherapy 15(0.7%) 14(0.7%) 1(0.5%) 1
 HAIC 14(0.7%) 11(0.6%) 3(1.4%) 0.159
 PEI 5(0.2%) 3(0.2%) 2(0.9%) 0.082
 RFA 7(0.3%) 6(0.3%) 1(0.5%) 0.524
Hospice care (yes) 405(19.1%) 380(19.9%) 25(11.7%) 0.003
Death in a hospital 821(38.7%) 679(35.6%) 142(66.7%) <0.001
Cost (US dollars) 2073 ± 2667 1407 ± 1464 8042 ± 3477 <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ICU intensive care unit, ER emergency room, TACE transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, HAIC hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy, PEI percutaneous ethanol injection, RFA radiofrequency ablation