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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of elderly patients with liver cancer

From: Predictors of high healthcare costs in elderly patients with liver cancer in end-of-life: a longitudinal population-based study

Characteristics Total Non-HC group HC group p value
Number of patients, n (%) 2121 1909(90%) 212(10%)  
Gender     0.133
 Male 1349(63.6%) 1224(64.2%) 125(58.7%)  
 Female 772(36.4%) 684(35.8%) 88(41.3%)  
Age on death, years 75.8 ± 6.5 75.3 ± 6.6 74.7 ± 6.4 0.233
Survival after cancer diagnosis, years [mean (median)] 1.94(0.80) 1.92(0.84) 2.10(0.88) 0.523
Diabetes 296(14.0%) 268(10.4%) 28(13.1%) 0.835
Hypertension 426(20.1%) 383(20.1%) 43(20.2%) 1
Stroke 164(7.7%) 144(7.5%) 20(9.4%) 0.343
HBV 436(20.6%) 384(20.1%) 52(24.4%) 0.152
HCV 621(29.3%) 556(29.1%) 65(30.5%) 0.692
Liver cirrhosis 1275(60.1%) 1139(59.7%) 136(63.8%) 0.268
EVB 18.7(8.8%) 149(7.8%) 38(17.8%) <0.001
Ascites 519(24.5%) 479(25.1%) 40(18.8%) 0.044
CKD 155(7.3%) 129(6.8%) 26(12.2%) 0.008
Hemodialysis 95(4.5%) 62(3.2%) 33(15.5%) <0.001
CCI (scores) 3.64 ± 2.36 3.62 ± 2.32 3.80 ± 2.65 0.534
Opioids use 459(21.6%) 393(20.6%) 66(31.0%) 0.001
Urbanization level
 Urban 949(44.7%) 842(44.1%) 107(50.2%) 0.095
 Suburban 775(36.5%) 702(36.8%) 73(34.3%) 0.500
 Rural 397(18.7%) 364(19.1%) 33(15.5%) 0.229
  1. Abbreviations: HC group high healthcare cost group (defined as those whose costs in the LML were greater than the 90th percentile (US $5093); non-HC group, non-high healthcare cost group (defined as those whose costs in the LML were lower than the 90th percentile), HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, EVB esophageal varices with bleeding, CKD chronic kidney disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index