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Table 3 Difference in means and effect size among study arms

From: The feasibility and benefit of a brief psychosocial intervention in addition to early palliative care in patients with advanced cancer to reduce depressive symptoms: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial

Instrument Assessed domain Comparison among study arms
A vs. B   A vs. C   B vs. C  
Δ A Δ B ES p* Δ A Δ C ES p* Δ B Δ C ES p*
EORTC QLQ-C15 Pal Global health −4.76 −8.88 0.20 0.953 −4.76 −11.76 0.31 0.984 −8.88 −11.76 0.15 0.946
Emotional functioning −20.24 −2.94 −0.66 0.200 −20.24 −2.94 −0.61 0.138 −2.94 −2.94 0.00 0.734
HADS Anxiety 1.64 0.82 0.17 0.984 1.64 0.88 0.15 0.951 0.82 0.88 −0.01 0.958
Depression −0.43 1.06 −0.33 0.336 −0.43 2.18 −0.74 0.029 1.06 2.18 −0.25 0.394
PHQ9 Depression 1.14 2.71 −0.26 0.356 1.14 0.88 0.05 0.710 2.71 0.88 0.32 0.231
ESAS Anxiety 1.93 0.88 0.22 0.710 1.93 0.88 0.19 0.173 0.88 0.88 0.00 0.290
  Depression             
  Emotional 1.93 0.88 0.22 0.710 1.93 0.88 0.19 0.173 0.88 0.88 0.00 0.290
  1. Legend: ES effect size; Δ = difference in means between days 0 and 90 (d0-d90)
  2. *Mann-Whitney test (Bonferroni correction; values are significant when p < 0.017)