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Table 6 Predictors of 5-year survival in rectal cancer patients

From: Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

Predictors aCrude HR (95% CI) bAdjusted HR (95% CI)
Sex
 Female 1.00 1.00
 Male 1.27 (1.02–1.60) 1.68 (1.19–2.37)
Preoperative carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) level
 Not elevated 1.00 1.00
 Elevated 2.03 (1.55–2.65) 2.09 (1.39–2.37)
Duke’s stages
 A&B 1.00 1.00
 C 1.27 (0.89–1.80) 1.16 (0.79–1.72)
 D 3.98 (2.37–5.80) 3.97 (2.59–6.10)
Tumour grades
 Low 1.00 1.00
 High 2.99 (1.92–4.67) 2.91 (1.65–5.14)
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aUnivariate Cox Proportional Hazard Regression analysis
  3. bMultivariate Cox Proportional Hazard Regression analysis, adjusted for age, gender, co- morbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), tumour grade and treatment modalities