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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate PFS analyses. Univariate P values were computed by the log-rank test, multivariate P values by the Cox proportional hazards model

From: Haemoglobin level increase as an efficacy biomarker during axitinib treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

  Univariate analysis (N = 98) Multivariate analysis (N = 96)
N median PFS 95%CI P value adjusted HR 95%CI P value
Demographics
 Gender     0.016    0.0041
  Male 70 10.4 [8.6; 14.7]   1 -  
  Female 28 7.3 |6.1; 11.0]   2.1 [1.3; 3.5]  
 Age     0.19    
   < median (61.6 years) 49 8.0 [6.6; 10.8]     
   ≥ median (61.6 years) 49 11.0 [8.2; 17.1]     
 Smoking status     0.61    
  Never 43 8.7 [7.2; 15.1]     
  Former 24 8.7 [5.6; NR]     
  Current 19 8.2 [4.1; 10.6]     
Disease characteristics
 Histology     0.17    
  Clear cell carcinoma 85 9.5 [8.0; 11.8]     
  Other 13 5.6 [4.0; NR]     
 Fuhrman grades     0.29    
  I-II 23 11.5 [8.7; 17.6]     
  III 40 8.4 [6.4; 11.3]     
  IV 16 13.2 [9.0; NR]     
 Nephrectomy     0.63    
  No 12 6.1 [4.3; NR]     
  Yes 86 9.3 [8.0; 11.7]     
Axitinib treatment
 Treatment line     0.19    
  2nd-3rd line 67 9.5 [8.0; 13.2]     
  4th line and beyond 31 7.4 [5.4; 14.7]     
 Baseline IMDC     0.0026    
  Favourable risk 19 11.5 [7.4; NR]     
  Intermediate risk 40 11.8 [9.0; 16.7]     
  Poor risk 21 6.3 [3.8; 9.3]     
 Performance status     0.00044    <0.0001
  0 24 15.7 [11.3; NR]   1 -  
  1 54 8.7 [7.2; 11.7]   2.4 [1.3; 4.4]  
  2–3 18 6.3 [3.6; 9.6]   5.5 [2.5; 11.9]  
 Anaemia        
  No 48 8.8 [8.7; 13.1] 0.34    
  Yes 50 7.7 [7.4; 10.6]     
 BMI     0.38    
   < median (24.8 kg/m2) 42 9.0 [7.1; 11.8]     
   ≥ median (24.8 kg/m2) 43 8.9 [6.6; 14.4]     
Adverse events
 HbL increase (during first 3 mo.)     0.0099    
   < median (2.3 g/dL) 49 7.4 [6.1; 9.6]     
   ≥ median (2.3 g/dL) 49 11.7 [9.3; 16.6]     
 hBP (during treatment)     0.0047    
  No 42 7.3 [4.4; 9.3]     
  Any grade 56 11.2 [8.9; 16.4]     
 Composite factor:        
 HbL increase ≥2.3 g/dL and hBP     0.00032    0.00048
  None or only one 63 7.4 [6.2; 9.0]   1 -  
  Both 35 14.7 [10.8; 19.6]   0.40 [0.24; 0.68]  
  1. NR not reached, 95%CI 95% confidence interval, IMDC International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium, BMI body mass index, hBP high blood pressure, HbL haemoglobin level