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Table 3 Derived relative risks (RR) from meta- analyses used in the PAF estimation

From: Proportion of cancer in a Middle eastern country attributable to established risk factors

Risk Factor Cancer site Males Females References
Tobacco smoking (compared to non-smokers) Esophagus Current smokers: 2.5
Previous smokers: 2.03
Current smokers: 2.5
Previous smokers: 2.03
[42]
Larynx Current smokers: 6.98
Previous smokers: 2.31
Current smokers: 6.98
Previous smokers: 2.31
[42]
Lung Current smokers: 8.96
Previous smokers: 3.85
Current smokers: 8.96
Previous smokers: 3.85
[43]
Bladder Current smokers: 3.3
Previous smokers: 2.0
Current smokers: 3.1
Previous smokers: 1.65
[42]
Stomach Current smokers: 1.64
Previous smokers: 1.31
Current smokers: 1.64
Previous smokers: 1.31
[42]
Liver Current smokers: 1.56
Previous smokers: 1.49
Current smokers: 1.56
Previous smokers: 1.49
[42]
Pancreas Current smokers: 1.71
Previous smokers: 1.18
Current smokers: 1.71
Previous smokers: 1.18
[42]
Cervix   Current smokers: 1.83
Previous smokers: 1.26
[42]
Body Mass Index (BMI) (compared to BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2) EGCA Overweight:1.71
Obese: 2.34
Overweight:1.71
Obese: 2.34
[44]
Colon Overweight:1.26
Obese: 1.71
Overweight:1.09
Obese: 1.1
[45]
Rectum Overweight:1.07
Obese: 1.75
Overweight:1
Obese: 1.12
[45]
Liver Overweight:1.3
Obese: 1.8
Overweight:1.04
Obese: 1.63
[46]
Endometrium   Overweight:1.02
Obese: 1.19
[47]
Renal cell Overweight:1.22
Obese: 1.63
Overweight:1.38
Obese: 1.95
[49]
Pancreas Overweight:1.1
Obese: 1.5
Overweight:1.1
Obese: 1.5
[50]
Ovary   Overweight:1.08
Obese: 1.27
[51]
Breast   Overweight:1.02
Obese: 1.19
[29]
Physical Activity (low activity compared to medium and high activity) Table 1 Breast   Low:1.16 [52]
Bladder Low:1.09 Low:1.20 [53]
Gastric-esophagus Low:1.15 Low:1.67 [54]
Colon and rectum Low:1.38 Low:1.27 [55]
Adherence to Mediterranean Diet (low adherence compared to medium and high adherence) Table 1 Stomach Low adherence:1.49 Low adherence:1.49 [56]
Colon and rectum Low adherence:1.12 Low adherence:1.13 [57]
Bladder Low adherence: 1.26 Low adherence: 1.05 [58]
Alcohol consumption (High consumption compared to moderate and low consumption) Table 1 Oropharynx High: 5.30 High: 5.70 [59]
Esophagus High: 4.69 High: 8.32 [59]
Liver High: 1.59 High: 3.89 [59]
Colon and rectum High:1.53 High:1.24 [59]
Breast   High:1.61 [59]
Infection (compared to non-infected patients) Stomach Infected with H. Pylori: 2.89 Infected with H. Pylori: 2.89 [60]
Air pollution (exposure to PM10 and PM2.5)
compared to non-exposed)
Lung PM10: 1.08
PM2.5: 1.09
PM10: 1.08
PM2.5: 1.09
[41]