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Table 1 Risk factors, exposure levels and studied cancer sites

From: Proportion of cancer in a Middle eastern country attributable to established risk factors

Risk factor Exposure level Sources of Data
Prevalence of exposure Relative Risk
Tobacco smoking Current smoker, former smoker (cessation mean 8.9 years) Sibai et al. [14] (WHO) Lung [42]
Bladder [43]
Larynx [42]
Esophagus [42]
Stomach [42]
Liver [42]
Pancreas [42]
Cervix [42]
Body Mass Index (BMI) Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2)
Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)
Sibai et al. [14] (WHO) Esophageal and gastric cardia [44] Colon and Rectal [45] Liver [46]
Endometrial [47, 48]
Renal cell [49]
Pancreatic [50]
Ovarian [51]
Breast [29]
Physical Activity High (7 days of 3000 MET-minutes/week OR 3 days of 1500 MET-minutes/week)
Moderate (≥3 days vigorous intensity, OR ≥5 days moderate intensity, OR ≥5 days ≥600 MET-minutes/week)
Low: less than the moderate activity
Sibai et al. [14] (WHO) Breast [52]
Bladder [53]
Gastroesophageal [54]
Colorectal [55]
Adherence to Mediterranean Diet 9-point scale adherence to Mediterranean diet score
Low: 0–3, moderate 4–5, and high 6–9 points.
Using nationally representative dietary intake data of Lebanese adults aged between 20 and 55 years (unpublished data) Gastric [56]
Colorectal [57]
Bladder [58]
Alcohol consumption Heavy: More than 50 g per day Sibai et al. [14] (WHO) Oropharyngeal and Esophageal [59]
Liver [59]
Colon [59]
Breast [59]
Infection Percentage of H. Pylori infections in the Lebanese population Naja et al. [17] Gastric [60]
Air pollution (PM10 PM2.5) Levels exceeding WHO standards:
PM10: 20 μg/ m3
PM2.5: 10 μg/ m3
Saliba et al. [18]
Saliba et al. [19]
Lung [40]
  1. MET, Metabolic equivalent of task