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Table 1 Studies of Ultrasound Imaging of Regional Lymph Nodes in Melanoma Patients Scheduled for Sentinel Node Biopsy

From: Gamma probe and ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the sentinel node (GULF) trial - overview of the literature, pilot and study protocol

Author, year Study Design N US Setting FNAC/other technique Sens (%) Spec (%) PPV (%) NPV (%)
Rossi [61], 2000 Not mentioned 69 Pre-lympho No 33 100 100 86
Rossi [25], 2003 Prospective, monocentric 125 Pre-lympho FNAC if US suspicious US alone: Not mentioned - - -
US-FNAC: 39 100 100 85
Hocevar [62], 2004 Prospective, monocentric 57 unknown FNAC if US suspicious US alone: 71 84 59 90
US-FNAC: Not mentioned - - -
Testori [63], 2005 Retrospective, monocentric 88 unknown No 94 90 64 99
Starritt [64], 2005 Prospective, monocentric 31 all SN + Post-lympho No NA NA NA NA
Voit [65], 2006 Prospective, monocentric 127 Post-lympho FNAC if US suspicious US alone: 79 72 53 90
FNAC alone: 59 100 100 85
US-FNAC: 82 72 54 91
Van Rijk [26], 2006 Retrospective, monocentric 107 Pre-lympho FNAC if US suspicious US alone: 34 87 - -
US-FNAC: 4.7 100 - -
Sibon [66], 2007 Prospective, monocentric 131 Pre-lympho No 9 96 43 -
Kunte [67], 2009 Prospective, monocentric 25 Pre- and post-lympho No 33 100 100 88
Voit [30], 2009 Prospective, monocentric 400 Post-lympho FNAC if US suspicious 65 99 93 92
Sanki [60], 2009 Prospective, monocentric 716 Post-lympho No 33 97 60 88
De Giorgi [36], 2010 Prospective monocentric 15 Post-lympho Standard CEUS CEUS: 100 62 55 100
Voit [31], 2010 Prospective monocentric 400 Post lympho FNAC if US suspicious All Berlin criteria combined: 82 80 52 94
Hinz [58], 2011 Prospective monocentric 81 Pre and post lympho No 22 100 100 96
Chai [68], 2012 Retrospective monocentric 325 Pre-lympho FNAC if US suspicious 34 86 37 84
Marone [69], 2012 Prospective monocentric 623 Pre-lympho No 15 100 100 87
Pilko [70], 2012 Retrospective Monocentric 405 Pre-lympho FNAC if US suspicious Not mentioned - - -
Stoffels [71], 2012 Retrospective Monocentric 221 Pre-lympho FNAC if US suspicious 14 97 100 97
Hinz [72], 2013 Retrospective Monocentric 20 Pre-lympho &, pre PET-CT No If US malig. Direct LND 12 100 100 74
Ulrich [73], 2014 In German Prospective monocentric 800 Post lympho FNAC if US suspicious US-FNAC: 56 99 92 89
Voit [32], 2014 Prospective monocentric 1000 Post lympho FNAC if US suspicious US alone: 71 - - -
US-FNAC: 51 99 99 89
Voit [33], 2016 Prospective monocentric 1000 Post lympho FNAC if US suspicious US alone: 71 - - -
US-FNAC: 51 99 99 89
  1. Overview of studies reporting on ultrasound imaging of regional lymph nodes in melanoma patients prior to sentinel node biopsy. Abbreviations: US ultrasound, FNAC fine needle aspiration cytology, CEUS contrast enhanced ultrasound, Sens sensitivity, Spec specificity, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value, lympho lymphoscintigraphy, NA not applicable
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