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Table 1 Ninety-five genes for amino acid metabolism related enzymes that were subjected to initial screening

From: In search of druggable targets for GBM amino acid metabolism

Pathways Gene/Enzyme
Alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamine, & glutamate metabolism: 1. ABAT: 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase
2. ADSL: adenylosuccinate lyase
3. ADSS: adenylosuccinate synthetase
4. AGXT: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase
5. DDO: D-aspartate oxidase
6. ASNS: aspargine synthetase
7. ASPA: aspartoacylase
8. GAD1: glutamate decarboxylase 1
9. GAD2: glutamate decarboxylase 2
10. GOT1: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble (i.e., AST: aspartate transaminase or aminotransferase, AspAT/ASAT/AAT or SGOT)
11. GOT2: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial
12. GPT: glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (i.e. ALT: alanine aminotransferase)
13. GLUD1: glutamate dehydrogenase 1
14. GLUD2: glutamate dehydrogenase 2
15. ALDH5A1: Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 5 Family, Member A1
16. GLUL: glutamine synthetase (i.e., GS)
17. GFPT2: glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 2
18. MECP2: methyl CpG binding protein 2
19. GLS: glutaminase
Histidine metabolism: 20. ALDH1B1: aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member B1
21. CNDP2: CNDP dipeptidase 2 (metallopeptidase M20 family)
22. HDC: Histidine dexarboxylase
23. HAL: histidine ammonia-lyase (i.e., Histidase: HIS or HSTD)
Leucine, isoleucine, & valine metabolism: 24. BCAT1: branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1, cytosolic
25. BCAT2: branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial
26. LRS: Leucyl-tRNA synthetase
27. BCKDHB: branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, beta polypeptide
28. ILVBL: ilvB (bacterial acetolactate synthase)-like
29. PCCB: propionyl CoA carboxylase, beta polypeptide
Lysine metabolism: 30. AASDHPPT: L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase-phosphopantetheinyl transferase
31. PIPOX: pipecolic acid oxidase
32. WHSC1L1: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1
Phenylalanine metabolism: 33. PAH: phenylalanine hydroxylase
34. FAH: fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (fumarylacetoacetase)
Serine, glycine, & threonine metabolism: 35. ALAS1: 5′-aminolevulinate synthase 1
36. ALAS2: 5′-aminolevulinate synthase 2
37. GCAT: glycine C-acetyltransferase
38. PHGDH: phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase
39. PSAT1: phosphoserine aminotransferase 1
40. PSPH: phosphoserine phosphatase
41. SDS: serine dehydratase
42. SHMT1: serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1
43. SHMT2: serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2
44. SPTLC1: serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1
45. SPTLC2: serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2
46. SPTLC3: serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 3
47. PPP2R4: protein phosphatase 2A activator, regulatory subunit 4 (i.e., PP2A)
48. ALAD: Aminolevulinic dehydrase
Tyrosine metabolism: 49. PNMT: phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
50. TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
51. TAT: tyrosine aminotransferase
52. DDC: DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase)
Cysteine, methionine, & glutathione metabolism: 53. CCBL1: cysteine conjugate-beta lyase, cytoplasmic
54. CCBL2: cysteine conjugate-beta lyase 2
55. LDHA: lactate dehydrogenase A
56. AHCY: adenosylhomocysteinase
57. MDH2: malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial)
58. TYMS: thymidylate synthase
59. CTH: cystathionine gamma-lyase
60. GCLC: glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit
61. GCLM: glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier subunit
62. GSS: Glutathione synthetase
63. MTR: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase
64. MAT2A: methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha
Arginine and proline metabolism: 65. OAT: ornithine aminotransferase
66. CKM: creatine kinase, muscle
67. LAP3: leucine aminopeptidase 3
68. ASL: argininosuccinate lyase
69. ASS1: argininosuccinate synthetase 1
70. ADC: arginine decarboxylase
71. DDAH2: dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2
72. GATM: glycine amidinotransferase (L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase) (i.e., AGAT: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase)
73. ARG1: arginase 1
74. PADI2: peptidyl arginine deiminase, type II
75. PYCR1: pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1
76. PRODH: proline dehydrogenase (oxidase) 1
Tryptophan metabolism: 77. AANAT: aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
78. TDO2: tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
79. TPH1: Tryptophan hydroxylase 1
80. IDO1: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Selenocompound metabolism: 81. MARS: methionyl-tRNA synthetase
82. SEPHS1: selenophosphate synthetase 1
Other: 83. AADAT: aminoadipate aminotransferase
84. UROS: Uroporphyrineogen synthase
85. UROD: uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase
86. CPS1: carbamoyl-phosphatesynthase 1, mitochondrial
87. OTC: ornithine carbamoyltransferase
88. PDXP: pyridoxal (pyridoxine, vitamin B6) phosphatase
89. PNPO: pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate oxidase
Amino acid transporters: 90. SLC3A2: solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 2 (i.e., 4F2hc)
91. SLC7A11: solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11 (i.e., xCT)
92. SLC7A7 solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y + L system), member 7 (i.e., LAT3)
93. SLC7A5: solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5 (i.e., LAT1)
94. SLC1A5: solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5 (i.e., ASCT2)
95. SLC6A14: solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14