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Table 5 Institute of medicine calcium and vitamin D dietary reference intakes and prostate cancer

From: Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer

  Controls   Cases vs. Controls   NCCN High Risk vs. Controls   Gleason Score ≥4 + 3 vs. Controls
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  n (%) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.)
Dietary Calcium, mg/day
 <800 719 (75.1) 508 (72.7) 1.00 1.00 101 (64.3) 1.00 1.00 99 (63.9) 1.00 1.00
 800–1000 93 (9.7) 73 (10.4) 1.11 (0.80–1.54) 1.04 (0.72–1.51) 20 (12.7) 1.53 (0.91–2.59) 1.18 (0.62–2.26) 23 (14.8) 1.80 (1.09–2.97) 1.82 (1.03–3.20)
 ≥1000 146 (15.2) 118 (16.9) 1.14 (0.88–1.50) 1.13 (0.83–1.55) 36 (22.9) 1.76 (1.15–2.67) 1.50 (0.88–1.55) 33 (21.3) 1.64 (1.07–2.53) 1.60 (0.97–2.65)
 P    0.55 0.74   0.02 0.32   0.009 0.04
Dietary Vitamin D, IU/day
 <400 940 (98.1) 683 (97.7) 1.00 1.00 148 (94.3) 1.00 1.00 149 (96.1) 1.00 1.00
 ≥400 18 (1.9) 16 (2.3) 1.22 (0.62–2.42) 1.20 (0.53–2.74) 9 (5.7) 3.18 (1.40–7.20) 2.56 (0.84–7.85) 6 (3.9) 2.10 (0.82–5.38) 2.22 (0.71–6.96)
 P    0.56 0.66   0.006 0.10   0.12 0.17
Supplemental Calcium, mg/day
 <800 908 (94.8) 656 (93.8) 1.00 1.00 145 (92.4) 1.00 1.00 144 (92.9) 1.00 1.00
 ≥800 50 (5.2) 43 (6.2) 1.19 (0.78–1.81) 1.07 (0.66–1.74) 12 (7.6) 1.50 (0.78–2.89) 1.90 (0.81–4.47) 11 (7.1) 1.39 (0.71–2.73) 1.46 (0.67–3.21)
 P    0.42 0.79   0.22 0.14   0.34 0.35
Supplemental Vitamin D, IU/day
 <400 567 (59.2) 425 (60.8) 1.00 1.00 102 (65.0) 1.00 1.00 94 (60.6) 1.00 1.00
 400–600 246 (25.7) 199 (28.5) 1.08 (0.86–1.35) 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 46 (29.3) 1.04 (0.71–1.52) 0.94 (0.59–1.49) 47 (30.3) 1.15 (0.79–1.69) 1.06 (0.69–1.64)
 ≥600 145 (15.1) 75 (10.7) 0.69 (0.51–0.94) 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 9 (5.7) 0.35 (0.17–0.70) 0.35 (0.16–0.77) 14 (9.0) 0.58 (0.32–1.05) 0.47 (0.25–0.90)
 P    0.03 0.08   0.01 0.03   0.11 0.047
Total Calcium, mg/day
 <800 623 (65.0) 422 (60.4) 1.00 1.00 85 (54.1) 1.00 1.00 81 (52.3) 1.00 1.00
 800–1000 85 (8.9) 92 (13.2) 1.60 (1.16–2.20) 1.61 (1.12–2.29) 19 (12.1) 1.64 (0.95–2.83) 1.55 (0.82–2.95) 24 (15.5) 2.17 (1.31–3.61) 2.26 (1.30–3.95)
 ≥1000 250 (26.1) 185 (26.5) 1.01 (0.87–1.37) 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 53 (33.8) 1.55 (1.07–2.26) 1.48 (0.91–2.40) 50 (32.3) 1.54 (1.05–2.25) 1.54 (0.98–2.43)
 P    0.02 0.03   0.02 0.18   0.004 0.009
Total Vitamin D, IU/day
 <400 545 (56.9) 406 (58.1) 1.00 1.00 93 (59.2) 1.00 1.00 87 (56.1) 1.00 1.00
 400–600 210 (21.9) 178 (25.5) 1.14 (0.90–1.44) 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 46 (29.3) 1.28 (0.87–1.89) 1.14 (0.71–1.83) 42 (27.1) 1.25 (0.84–1.87) 1.24 (0.80–1.95)
 ≥600 203 (21.2) 115 (16.5) 0.76 (0.59–0.99) 0.74 (0.54–1.01) 18 (11.5) 0.52 (0.31–0.88) 0.44 (0.23–0.84) 26 (16.8) 0.80 (0.50–1.28) 0.60 (0.35–1.05)
 P    0.03 0.06   0.009 0.02   0.25 0.06
  1. NOTE: Model adjusted for age, family history of PCa, race/ethnicity, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol use, and marital status, as well as mutually adjustment for total calcium or vitamin D intake. For the analysis of dietary and supplemental calcium intake, total vitamin D intake was adjusted for, while we adjusted for total calcium intake for the analysis of dietary and supplementary vitamin D intake. In addition, dietary and supplement intake was mutually adjusted. The IOM EAR for calcium intake is 800 mg/day and for vitamin D intake is 400 IU/day. The RDA for calcium is 1,000 mg/day and for vitamin D is 600 IU/day. Significant association is shown with bolded type