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Table 2 Association of dietary and total calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer

From: Race and BMI modify associations of calcium and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer

  Controls   Cases vs. Controls   NCCN High Risk vs. Controls   Gleason Score ≥4 + 3 vs. Controls
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  n (%) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.) n (%) OR (95% C.I.) OR (95% C.I.)
Dietary Calcium, mg/day
 Quartile 1 (<283.5) 236 (24.6) 178 (25.5) 1.00 1.00 35 (22.3) 1.00 1.00 30 (19.4) 1.00 1.00
 Quartile 2 (283.5–504.4) 246 (25.7) 168 (24.0) 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 32 (20.4) 0.88 (0.53–1.46) 0.88 (0.48–1.61) 33 (21.3) 1.06 (0.62–1.79) 0.99 (0.55–1.79)
 Quartile 3 (504.5–813.1) 247 (25.8) 168 (24.0) 0.90 (0.68–1.19) 0.93 (0.67–1.30) 35 (22.3) 0.96 (0.58–1.58) 1.37 (0.73–2.57) 38 (24.5) 1.21 (0.73–2.02) 1.47 (0.82–2.66)
 Quartile 4 (>813.1) 229 (23.9) 185 (26.5) 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 0.98 (0.69–1.39) 55 (35.0) 1.62 (1.02–2.57) 1.43 (0.76–2.71) 54 (34.8) 1.86 (1.15–3.00) 1.80 (1.00–3.25)
 P for Trend    0.49 0.92   0.04 0.07   0.03 0.02
Dietary Vitamin D, IU/day
 Quartile 1 (<29.9) 249 (26.0) 165 (23.6) 1.00 1.00 26 (16.6) 1.00 1.00 29 (18.7) 1.00 1.00
 Quartile 2 (29.9–71.4) 244 (25.5) 170 (24.3) 1.05 (0.80–1.39) 0.98 (0.71–1.35) 41 (26.1) 1.61 (0.96–2.71) 1.24 (0.68–2.29) 37 (23.9) 1.30 (0.77–2.18) 1.03 (0.58–1.84)
 Quartile 3 (71.5–148.3) 229 (23.9) 186 (26.6) 1.23 (0.93–1.62) 1.15 (0.81–1.63) 48 (30.6) 2.01 (1.21–3.34) 1.45 (0.75–2.80) 46 (29.7) 1.73 (1.05–2.84) 1.28 (0.69–2.37)
 Quartile 4 (>148.3) 236 (24.6) 178 (25.5) 1.14 (0.86–1.50) 1.01 (0.67–1.50) 42 (26.8) 1.70 (1.01–2.86) 0.86 (0.40–1.86) 43 (27.7) 1.56 (0.95–2.59) 0.96 (0.48–1.93)
 P for Trend    0.35 0.87   0.13 0.38   0.11 0.93
Supplemental Calcium, mg/day
 0 464 (48.4) 384 (54.9) 1.00 1.00 94 (59.9) 1.00 1.00 83 (53.5) 1.00 1.00
 0–400 103 (10.8) 41 (5.9) 0.48 (0.33–0.71) 0.66 (0.2–1.03) 8 (5.1) 0.38 (0.18–0.81) 0.67 (0.28–1.59) 11 (7.1) 0.60 (0.31–1.16) 1.02 (0.48–2.14)
 ≥400 391 (40.8) 274 (39.2) 0.85 (0.69–1.04) 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 55 (35.0) 0.69 (0.49–0.99) 0.64 (0.40–1.01) 61 (39.4) 0.87 (0.61–1.25) 0.79 (0.52–1.22)
 P for Trend    0.20 0.39   0.07 0.05   0.54 0.29
Total Calcium, mg/day
 Quartile 1 (<368.8) 240 (25.1) 174 (24.9) 1.00 1.00 34 (21.7) 1.00 1.00 30 (19.4) 1.00 1.00
 Quartile 2 (368.8–616.0) 249 (26.0) 165 (23.6) 0.91 (0.69–1.21) 0.94 (0.67–1.31) 34 (21.7) 0.96 (0.58–1.60) 1.10 (0.59–2.02) 34 (21.9) 1.09 (0.65–1.84) 1.12 (0.62–2.05)
 Quartile 3 (616.1–1033.3) 234 (24.4) 181 (25.9) 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 1.19 (0.84–1.68) 38 (24.2) 1.15 (0.70–1.88) 1.38 (0.72–2.63) 43 (27.7) 1.47 (0.89–2.42) 1.66 (0.91–3.04)
 Quartile 4 (>1033.3) 235 (24.5) 179 (25.6) 1.05 (0.80–1.38) 1.06 (0.74–1.53) 51 (32.5) 1.53 (0.96–2.45) 1.98 (1.01–3.91) 48 (31.0) 1.63 (1.01–2.67) 1.83 (0.97–3.48)
 P for Trend    0.49 0.68   0.04 0.03   0.03 0.03
Total Vitamin D, IU/day
 Quartile 1 (<63.5) 231 (24.1) 183 (26.2) 1.00 1.00 39 (24.8) 1.00 1.00 36 (23.2) 1.00 1.00
 Quartile 2 (63.5–239.2) 244 (25.5) 170 (24.3) 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 0.86 (0.61–1.21) 39 (24.8) 0.95 (0.58–1.53) 0.85 (0.46–1.56) 38 (24.5) 1.00 (0.61–1.63) 0.91 (0.50–1.65)
 Quartile 3 (239.3–510.2) 239 (24.9) 176 (25.2) 0.93 (0.71–1.22) 0.89 (0.63–1.25) 52 (33.1) 1.29 (0.82–2.03) 1.03 (0.57–1.89) 46 (29.7) 1.24 (0.77–1.98) 1.08 (0.60–1.93)
 Quartile 4 (>510.2) 244 (25.5) 170 (24.3) 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 0.81 (0.56–1.16) 27 (17.2) 0.66 (0.39–1.11) 0.38 (0.18–0.79) 35 (22.6) 0.92 (0.56–1.52) 0.64 (0.33–1.23)
 P for Trend    0.55 0.39   0.17 0.01   0.80 0.16
  1. NOTE: Model adjusted for age, family history of PCa, race/ethnicity, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol use, and marital status as well as mutually adjustment for total calcium or vitamin D intake. In the adjusted model, dietary and supplementary calcium and vitamin D intake simultaneously adjusted for each other. For the analysis of dietary and supplementary calcium intake, total vitamin D intake was adjusted for, while we adjusted for total calcium intake for the analysis of dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake. Significant association is shown with bolded type