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Table 1 Literature review of geriatric intervention programs

From: Role of geriatric intervention in the treatment of older patients with cancer: rationale and design of a phase III multicenter trial

First author Study design N Population Mean age Intervention Primary end-point Results
Bourdel-Marchasson [13] Multicenter RCT* 336 Patients with solid tumor treated by chemotherapy at risk of malnutrition (17 ≤ MNA ≤ 23.5). 78.0y 3–6 months diet counselling intervention 1-year mortality - Early dietary counselling was efficient in increasing intake but had no beneficial effect on mortality.
Hempenius [10] Multicenter RCT 260 Frail elderly patients undergoing elective surgery for a solid tumor ≈77.5y Geriatric liaison intervention Postoperative delirium - Intervention for frail elderly cancer patients receiving surgery to prevent post-operative delirium was not effective.
Demark-Wahnefried [34] Multicenter international RCT (RENEW study) 641 Overweight long-term survivors (≥5 years) of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer ≈73y 12-month diet and exercise intervention via telephone counseling and print materials Change in functional status (baseline/12-month and 24-month)
Diet quality, BMI and physical activity
- Significant change in functional status between intervention group and control group (p < 0.01): amelioration of functional decline in intervention group. Significant change in diet quality, physical activity and BMI (p < 0.01).
Morey [7] Change in functional status (baseline/12 m) using the Medical Outcomes Study SF36 questionnaire, health-related QoL - Significant change in physical function (p = 0.03) and QoL (p = 0.007) between groups.
Lapid [35] Subset geriatric analysis from stratified, two-group RCT 33 New advanced cancer diagnosis (5-year OS: 0–50 %) planned to receive radiotherapy ≈72y 4-week multidisciplinary QoL intervention QoL measured with Spitzer uniscale and linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 27 - Significant improvement in QoL (p < 0.05) at baseline, maintained at 4 and 8 weeks.
Rao [14] Subset analysis from RCT [36] 99 Frail elderly cancer patients hospitalized on a medical or surgical ward (≥2 days) ≈74y Geriatric assessment and patient management by a geriatric attending physician and a social worker 12-month survival and health-related QoL (after randomization), ADL, physical performance, health service utilization, and costs - No significant effect on survival or QoL parameters.
Positive effects of geriatric inpatient care on mental health and bodily pain (p < 0.05).
Days of hospitalization and cost similar.
Goodwin [6] Multicenter RCT 335 Older women (≥65y) newly (<2 months) diagnosed with breast cancer ≈72y 12-month nurse case management Type and use of cancer-specific therapies received in the first 6 months after diagnosis.
Patient satisfaction and arm function
- More appropriate management for women receiving nurse case management (Breast-conserving surgery, adjuvant radiation, radiation therapy, axillary dissection and breast reconstruction surgery).
Better arm function and higher satisfaction in intervention group.
McCorkle [15] Single centerRCT 375 Old patients (≥60y) newly diagnosed with solid cancer 60–92 4-week home-based case management by nurse Length of survival - Longer survival in intervention group than in usual care group (p = 0.001).
Survival advantage for intervention group in late stage patients.
Galvao [8] Two-arm single center RCT 57 Prostate cancer patient without bone metastases treated by AST (≥2 months) ≈70y 12-week progressive resistance and aerobic training (2/week) by an exercise physiologist Muscle mass, strength, physical function, QoL - Significant change in total body lean mass, muscle strength and endurance (p < 0.05). Change in QoL for general health (p = 0.022), vitality (p = 0.019) and physical health composite score (p = 0.02).
  1. *QoL quality of Life, RCT randomized controlled trial