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Table 4 Hazard ratios for developing cancer in patients with CHI after excluding HBV/HCV coinfected patients

From: Chronic hepatitis infection is associated with extrahepatic cancer development: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

  HBV HCV
No Yes   No Yes  
Cancer type Cases Cases HR (95 % CI)a Cases Cases HR (95 % CI)a
Overall 1,517 829 2.34 (2.15–2.55) 1,174 731 2.71 (2.47–2.99)
Brain cancer 21 4 0.85 (0.29–2.51) 13 4 1.51 (0.48–4.77)
Head and neck cancer 233 47 0.84 (0.61–1.16) 107 29 1.06 (0.70–1.62)
Thyroid gland cancer 53 20 1.41 (0.84–2.38) 23 9 1.62 (0.73–3.61)
Esophageal cancer 42 13 1.47 (0.78–2.76) 22 9 2.08 (0.93–4.65)
Stomach cancer 78 18 1.01 (0.60–1.69) 76 23 1.38 (0.85–2.24)
Colorectal cancer 212 72 1.51 (1.15–1.98) 204 51 1.09 (0.79–1.49)
Liver cancer 102 439 18.9 (15.2–23.6) 86 451 23.28 (18.4–29.5)
Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer 20 7 1.56 (0.65–3.73) 19 11 2.53 (1.17–5.48)*
Pancreatic cancer 33 13 1.69 (0.88–3.23) 32 11 1.68 (0.82–3.41)
Lung cancer 198 48 1.07 (0.78–1.47) 212 43 0.87 (0.62–1.21)
Kidney cancer 52 22 1.81 (1.10–3.01)* 47 11 0.98 (0.49–1.93)
Bladder cancer 67 13 0.87 (0.48–1.58) 65 13 0.91 (0.50–1.68)
Uterine and corpus cancerb 33 11 1.26 (0.63–2.50) 25 8 1.61 (0.71–3.67)
Cervical cancerb 42 10 1.10 (0.55–2.21) 32 11 1.52 (0.75–3.08)
Ovarian cancerb 23 8 1.35 (0.60–3.07) 10 1 0.58 (0.07–4.62)
Prostate cancerc 96 22 0.93 (0.58–1.49) 82 16 0.84 (0.48–1.46)
Breast cancerb 192 53 1.15 (0.84–1.56) 92 25 1.24 (0.78–1.95)
Melanoma 11 0 -- -- 7 2 1.48 (0.29–7.56)
Skin cancer 27 13 1.90 (0.97–3.73) 24 9 1.35 (0.61–2.99)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 29 15 2.22 (1.18–4.18)* 27 13 2.66 (1.34–5.27)
Myeloma 9 2 1.04 (0.22–4.90) 5 3 3.25 (0.73–14.5)
Leukemia 35 10 1.24 (0.61–2.52) 22 2 0.35 (0.08–1.53)
  1. *p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age, geographical region, occupation, level of urbanization, monthly income, the presence of comorbidities, and number of outpatient visits
  3. bWomen only
  4. cMen only