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Table 3 Hazard ratios for developing cancer in patients with CHI

From: Chronic hepatitis infection is associated with extrahepatic cancer development: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

  HBV HCV
No Yes   No Yes  
Cancer type Cases Cases HR (95 % CI)a Cases Cases HR (95 % CI)a
Overall 2,139 1,330 2.67 (2.49–2.86) 1,893 1,232 2.83 (2.63–3.05)
Brain cancer 30 7 1.04 (0.45–2.39) 18 7 1.67 (0.68–4.15)
Head and neck cancer 288 66 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 171 48 1.13 (0.81–1.57)
Thyroid gland cancer 61 24 1.50 (0.93–2.42) 44 13 1.18 (0.62–2.24)
Esophageal cancer 54 15 1.42 (0.79–2.54) 46 11 1.24 (0.63–2.43)
Stomach cancer 132 32 1.11 (0.75–1.65) 122 37 1.41 (0.96–2.06)
Colorectal cancer 341 104 1.36 (1.09–1.70) 327 83 1.07 (0.84–1.38)
Liver cancer 155 770 1.47 (18.0–25.6) 137 782 25.10 (20.9–30.2)
Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer 30 14 2.05 (1.07–3.91)* 32 18 2.60 (1.42–4.73)
Pancreatic cancer 35 19 2.61 (1.47–4.61) 55 17 1.51 (0.86–2.65)
Lung cancer 292 74 1.11 (0.86–1.44) 318 69 0.93 (0.71–1.21)
Kidney cancer 69 28 1.72 (1.10–2.68)* 68 17 0.99 (0.57–1.71)
Bladder cancer 80 24 1.24 (0.78–1.97) 87 24 1.20 (0.75–1.90)
Uterine and corpus cancerb 43 14 1.28 (0.69–2.37) 26 11 1.82 (0.87–3.78)
Cervical cancerb 62 10 0.74 (0.38–1.46) 62 11 0.81 (0.42–1.56)
Ovarian cancerb 27 15 2.31 (1.21–4.39)* 10 8 5.15 (1.98–13.4)
Prostate cancerc 134 30 0.95 (0.64–1.42) 136 24 0.81 (0.52–1.27)
Breast cancerb 256 74 1.25 (0.96–1.62) 197 46 1.08 (0.78–1.50)
Melanoma 14 0 -- -- 12 2 0.78 (0.17–3.60)
Skin cancer 37 15 1.46 (0.79–2.69) 37 11 1.09 (0.54–2.17)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 45 22 2.10 (1.25–3.52) 45 20 2.30 (1.34–3.96)
Myeloma 12 2 0.93 (0.20–4.25) 13 3 1.15 (0.32–4.20)
Leukemia 43 15 1.44 (0.79–2.61) 25 7 1.21 (0.51–2.87)
  1. *p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age, geographical region, occupation, level of urbanization, monthly income, the presence of comorbidities, and number of outpatient visits
  3. bWomen only
  4. cMen only