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Table 2 Mean ± SD of immunohistochemistry scores for activin βA- and βB-subunits, type 2 receptors, phosphorylated (p)-smads2&3, Smad4, smads6&7 and follistatin proteins in colon specimens from the different groups and according to pre-neoplastic (large ACF and MDF), benign and malignant lesions

From: Activins and their related proteins in colon carcinogenesis: insights from early and advanced azoxymethane rat models of colon cancer

  Control group S-AOM group L-AOM group
Normal gland Pre-neoplastic lesion Adenoma Carcinoma in situ Carcinoma Serosal metastatic carcinoma
βA-subunit 215.5 ± 31.1 296.8 ± 34.4b 255.1 ± 29.3a,c 313.3 ± 22.2b,d 334.1 ± 27.2b,c,d,e 363.7 ± 34.3b,c,d,e,f
βB-subunit 173.7 ± 28.7 113.4 ± 29.2b 227.2 ± 33.2a,c 129 ± 31.4b,d 122.8 ± 25.5b,c,d 73.7 ± 21 .9b,c,d,e,f
ACTRIIA 201.1 ± 26 137.2 ± 28.3b 234.7 ± 31.7a,c 103.3 ± 28.3b,c,d 93.4 ± 22.2b,c,d 68.8 ± 23.3b,c,d,e,f
ACTRIIB 116.6 ± 26.7 261.8 ± 37.7b 277.6 ± 31.6b 311.4 ± 22.8b,c,d 321.3 ± 28.9b,c.d 352.4 ± 27.6b,c,d,e,f
p-Smad2 192.4 ± 29.5 137.1 ± 26.8b 88.8 ± 21.7b,c 79.6 ± 25.3b.c 78.5 ± 22.9b,c 81.3 ± 18.8b,c
p-Smad3 272.7 ± 27.6 236.5 ± 42.6a 228.4 ± 47.4b 142.8 ± 43.6b,c,d 133.3 ± 39.3b,c,d 314.7 ± 32.2a,c,d,e,f
Smad4 226.7 ± 29.4 163.1 ± 27.2a 108.8 ± 33.1b,c 134.5 ± 35.3b,c 121.4 ± 38.4b,c 81.3 ± 22.2b,c,d,e,f
Samds6&7 166.8 ± 32.9 92.3 ± 21.7b 132.7 ± 31.3a,c 115.1 ± 21.3a,d 89.6 ± 23.3b.d.e 235.6 ± 42.2b,c,d,e,f
Follistatin 237.6 ± 22.2 272.3 ± 25.3a 291.4 ± 24.2b 317.8 ± 22.3b,c,d 333.8 ± 35.3b,c,d 365.8 ± 29.9b,c,d,e
  1. aP < 0.05 compared with normal; bP < 0.01 compared with normal; cP < 0.05 with pre-neoplastic lesion subgroup; dP < 0.05 compared with adenoma subgroup; eP < 0.05 with carcinoma in situ subgroup and fP < 0.05 compared with carcinoma subgroup