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Table 1 Base case cost-effectiveness results without discounting and with discount rate 3 % for both costs and benefits

From: Estimating long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV 16/18 vaccine in China

Rurala Screening only (A) Screening + vaccination (B) Difference (B-A) ICER (CNY per QALY gained) ICER (US$ per QALY gained)
Undiscounted
 Cost (CNY) 64,386,901 48,641,712 −15,745,190   
 Life-years 6,822,557 6,826,325 3768   
 CC cases 747 292 −455   
 CC deaths 354 139 −215   
 QALYs 6,821,273 6,825,826 4553 −3458 −549
Discounted
 Cost (CNY) 19,627,341 29,777,012 10,149,672   
 QALYs 2,934,012 2,934,905 893 11,365 1804
Urbana Screening only (A) Screening + vaccination (B) Difference (B-A) ICER (CNY per QALY gained) ICER (US$ per QALY gained)
Undiscounted
 Cost (CNY) 92,026,104 62,240,211 −29,785,893   
 Life-years 7,241,077 7,244,914 3837   
 CC cases 913 356 −557   
 CC deaths 341 133 −208   
 QALYs 7,239,157 7,244,167 5011 −5944 944
Discounted
 Cost (CNY) 28,711,710 34,593,492 5,881,781   
 QALYs 3,001,172 3,002,133 961 6124 972
  1. CC Cervical Cancer, QALYs Quality-adjusted Life-years, CNY Chinese Yuan, US$ United States Dollar, ICER Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio
  2. a100,000 subjects