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Table 4 Adjusted mean RR estimates of prostate cancer morbidity or mortality for different categories of drinkers compared with ‘abstainers’ by misclassification errors

From: Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta–analysis

Drinking categories N/na Weighted for mean RR Adjusted for mean RRb
RR 95 % CI t–test P RR 95 % CI t–test P
Former & occasional drinker biases
 Low–volume (1.30– < 25 g/day) 10/20 1.10 1.03 – 1.18 0.1499 1.11 1.03 – 1.19 0.0069
 Medium–high volume (25+ g/day) 9/17 1.12 1.02 – 1.22 0.0152 1.13 1.04 – 1.24 0.0079
 Any drinking (1.30+ g/day) 10/37 1.11 1.05 – 1.17 0.0273 1.12 1.02 – 1.23 0.0405
Former drinker bias only
 Low–volume (1.30– < 25 g/day) 6/16 1.05 1.00 – 1.10 0.0708 1.01 0.96 – 1.06 0.6901
 Medium–high volume (25+ g/day) 5/10 1.10 1.05 – 1.16 0.0005 1.05 0.99 – 1.12 0.1136
 Any drinking (1.30+ g/day) 6/26 1.07 0.84 – 1.37 0.1657 1.03 0.87 – 1.22 0.2760
Occasional drinker bias only
 Low–volume (1.30– < 25 g/day) 5/10 1.08 0.97 – 1.21 0.1411 1.06 0.95 – 1.18 0.2534
 Medium–high volume (25+ g/day) 4/9 1.06 0.95 – 1.18 0.2674 1.01 0.89 – 1.15 0.8706
 Any drinking (1.30+ g/day) 5/19 1.07 0.97 – 1.18 0.0715 1.04 0.83 – 1.29 0.2955
Neither former or occasional drinker biases
 Low–volume (1.30– < 25 g/day) 6/16 1.12 1.05 – 1.18 0.0008 1.23 1.05 – 1.45 0.0143
 Medium–high volume (25+ g/day) 3/8 1.10 0.95 – 1.26 0.1798 1.20 1.00 – 1.43 0.0475
 Any drinking (1.30+ g/day) 6/24 1.11 1.03 – 1.19 0.0359 1.22 1.07 – 1.38 0.0321
  1. Note: a N = Number of studies and n = Number of risk estimates. bWeighted using the inverse of variance and adjusted for US vs non–US study and control of smoking status in individual studies