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Table 2 Unadjusted mean RR estimates of prostate cancer morbidity or mortality for different categories of drinkers compared with ‘abstainers’ (N = 27 studies and 126 observations) with tests of publication bias and heterogeneity

From: Is alcohol consumption a risk factor for prostate cancer? A systematic review and meta–analysis

Drinking categories N/na Unadjusted mean RR Egger’s regression for publication bias Test for heterogeneity
RR (95 % CI) t–test P Coefficient t–test P Q statistic P I2 (%, 95 % CI)
Abstainer   1.00      
Former drinker 7/13 1.04 (0.92 – 1.19) 0.5155 –1.33 0.2274 >0.05 1.00 (0.00 – 56.59)
Occasional (<1.30 g/day) 6/7 1.02 (0.86 – 1.21) 0.8292 +1.63 0.0542 >0.05 1.00 (0.00 – 70.81)
Low volume (1.30– < 25 g/day) 27/62 1.09 (1.03 – 1.16) 0.0031 +0.13 0.5558 >0.05 10.66 (0.00 – 64.80)
Medium volume (25– < 45 g/day) 18/20 1.03 (0.93 – 1.14) 0.6046 –0.26 0.4287 >0.05 1.00 (0.00 – 62.37)
High volume (45– < 65 g/day) 10/11 1.13 (0.98 – 1.30) 0.0935 –0.32 0.5125 >0.05 13.38 (0.00 – 53.90)
Higher volume (65+ g/day) 9/13 1.15 (1.01 – 1.13) 0.0336 –0.24 0.6353 >0.05 19.94 (0.00 – 57.85)
Any drinking 27/126 1.08 (1.04 – 1.12) 0.0033 –0.04 0.7727 >0.05 16.42 (0.00 – 33.73)
  1. Note: a N = Number of studies and n = Number of risk estimates