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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for predictors of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women living with HIV with sufficient DNA for HPV analysis (n = 295)

From: Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark – the SHADE

Predictors of HPVa HPV-positive group (n = 78) HPV-negative group (n = 151) Unadjusted odds ratios p-value Adjusted odds ratiosb p-value
Age at 1 February 2011 (inclusion), n(%)
 18-29 years 9 (11.5) 9 (4.2) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 30-50 years 51 (65.4) 161 (74.2) 0.32 (0.12-0.84) 0.02 0.43 (0.14-1.33) 0.14
  > 50 years 18 (23.1) 47 (21.7) 0.38 (0.13-1.12) 0.08 0.51 (0.13-1.92) 0.32
 (missing) 0 (0) (0)     
 Combined p-value     0.068   0.32
Race, n(%)
 White 34 (44.7) 94 (44.1) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Asian 6 (7.9) 31 (14.6) 0.54 (0.21-1.40) 0.20 0.67 (0.23-1.92) 0.46
 Black 36 (47.4) 88 (41.3) 1.13 (0.65-1.96) 0.66 0.38 (0.67-2.87) 0.38
 (missing) (2) (4) - -   
 Combined p-value     0.31   0.35
Sexual debut, n(%)
  ≥ 16 years of age 51 (65.4) 160 (73.7) 1.00 - 1.00 -
  < 16 years of age 27 (34.6) 57 (26.3) 1.49 (0.85-2.59) 0.16 2.05 (1.03-4.10) 0.042
 (missing) (0) (0) -    
HAART duration, (years)
 Median (IQR) 4.6 (2.0-10.4) 8.8 (4.6-12.2) 0.91 (0.86-0.96) 0.0013 0.90 (0.84-0.96) 0.0011
 (missing) (2) (9)     
AIDS prior to inclusion, n(%)
 No 55 (71.4) 191 (88.4) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Yes 22 (28.6) 25 (11.6) 0.33 (0.17-0.63) 0.0007 3.61 (1.75-7.46) 0.0005
 (missing) (1) (1)     
Smoking status, n(%)
 Current smoker/Ex-smoker 33 (42.3) 92 (42.4) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Never smoker 45 (57.7) 125 (57.6) 1.00 (0.59-1.69) 0.99 1.31 (0.65-2.63) 0.45
 (missing) (0) (0)     
Number of lifetime sexual partners at inclusion, n(%)
  < 5 36 (25.0) 54 (36.0) 1.00 - 1.00 -
  ≥ 5 108 (75.0) 96 (64.0) 1.83 (1.00-3.36) 0.05 2.20 (1.08-4.49) 0.03
 (missing) (0) (1)     
Use of hormonal contraceptives,
n(%) 12 (8.3) 9 (6.0) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 Yes 132 (91.7) 142 (94.0) 0.89 (0.33-2.38) 0.82 1.29 (0.40-4.10) 0.67
 No (0) (0)     
 (missing)       
CD4 count at inclusion (cells/μL),
  > 350 45 (69.2) 173 (83.2) 1.00 - 1.00 -
 200-350 15 (23.1) 28 (13.5) 2.06 (1.02-4.18) 0.045 2.53 (1.20-5.40) 0.015
  < 200 5 (7.7) 7 (3.4) 2.75 (0.83-9.06) 0.10 2.70 (0.78-9.33) 0.12
 (missing) (13) (9)     
 Combined p-value     0.0496   0.023
  1. HAART = Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  2. aTwo models are shown in the table: Age, race, sexual debut, smoking status, number of lifetime sexual partners and use of hormonal contraceptives were included in both models, whereas HAART duration and AIDS prior to inclusion were included in the first model and replaced by CD4 at inclusion inthe second model, We only presented the ORs of the CD4 count from the second model, bThe validity of the model was tested using the Hosmer and Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit Test