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Table 3 Interaction between ICS use and lung infections

From: Post-inhaled corticosteroid pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia increases lung cancer in patients with COPD

  HR (95 % CI) p for ICS x pulmonary infection interaction
No ICS ICS
Model 1
 No lung infection 1 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.084
 TB 1.42 (0.89–2.26) 2.48 (1.31–4.72)
Model 2
 No lung infection 1 0.88 (0.67–1.15) 0.259
 Pneumonia 0.93 (0.60–1.44) 1.17 (0.69–1.99)
Model 3
 No lung infection 1 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 0.386
 TB+pneumonia 1.65 (0.76–3.58) 2.38 (1.01–5.58)
  1. Each model was adjusted by sex, age, medications, comorbidities, inpatient and outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, and urbanization