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Fig. 2 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in muscle invasive and metastatic bladder cancer patients

Fig. 2

PD-L1 positive CTCs observable in patients with bladder cancer (a) Of the 7 total patients with PD-L1+ CTCs, two had exclusively CK+/PD-L1+ CTCs, four patients had CTCs that were exclusively CK/PD-L1+, and one had both CKand CK+/PD-L1+ CTCs. Further breakdown of CK+/PD-L1+ and CK/PD-L1+ CTCs detected by tumor subtype and staging indicates that inclusion of CK CTCs substantially increased sensitivity of PD-L1+ CTC detection. b Representative images of CK+/PD-L1+ and CK/PD-L1+ patient CTCs are shown. c Representative FISH images of CK/PD-L1+ cells demonstrate gross genomic instability and polyploidy using DNA probes for CEP3 (aqua), CEP7 (orange), CEP10 (green) and 5p15 (red). 29/33 (88 %) CK/PD-L1+ cells assessed from one individual patient with high CTC burden were observed to have at least one abnormality determined by FISH

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