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Table 3 Characteristics of the five randomized controlled trials included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

From: The insulin-like growth factor system is modulated by exercise in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Design Stage of Disease Participants Interventions Outcome measures
Fairey et al. [26] (2003) RCT Breast Cancer Stage I –IIIB Characteristics of cancer treatment = Women who had completed surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy.
N = 53
Female = 53
Exp (n = 25)
Age (yr) = 59 (5)
Con (n = 28)
Age (yr) = 58 (6)
Exp = Aerobic exercise.
Length = 15 weeks.
Duration = Exercise began at 15 min for weeks 1–3, and then systematically increased by 5 min every 3 weeks thereafter to 35 min for weeks 13–15. Frequency = 3 ses/wk. Intensity = 70 %-75 %.
Con = Conventional care.
Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, fasting blood.
Irwin et al. [14] (2009) RCT Breast Cancer Stage 0-IIIA Characteristics of cancer treatment = Women who had completed surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy.
N = 68
Female = 68
Exp (n = 36)
Age (yr) = 56.4 (9.5)
Con (n = 32)
Age (yr) = 55.6 (7.7)
Exp = A combined supervised training program at a local health club and a home aerobic training program. Length = 24 weeks. Duration = 129 min/wk.
Frequency = Participants exercised three times per week and were instructed to exercise two days/ week on their own, either at the health club or home.
Intensity = Moderate-intensity.
Con = Conventional care. Duration = 45 min/wk.
Ainsworth’s Compendium of Physical Activities and fasting blood.
Janelsins et al. [27] (2011) RCT Breast Cancer Stage 0-IIIb Characteristics of cancer treatment = Surgery with axillary lymphadenectomy and both post-surgery radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Female = 19
Exp (n = 9)
Age (yr) = 54.33 (10.64)
Con (n = 10)
Age (yr) = 52.70 (6.67)
Exp = Tai Chi Chuan (TCC).
Length = 12 weeks.
Duration = 60 min/session Frequency = 3 session/week.
Intensity = Moderate or vigorous.
Con = Psychosocial therapy
Bioelectrical impedance tests, Fasting blood.
Schmitz et al. [28] (2005) RCT Breast Cancer Stage I-III Characteristics of cancer treatment = Radiation treatment, chemotherapy, axillary dissection, and hormonal therapy N = 85
Female = 85
Exp (n = 33)
Age (yr) = 53.3 (8.7)
Con (n = 36)
Age (yr) = 52.8 (7.6)
Exp = weight training
Length = 12 month (26 weeks)
Duration = 60 min each session Frequency = twice-weekly Intensity = moderate
Con = conventional care 0-6
month weight training 7-12 month
Body weight, height, body fat, lean mass, body fat %, and waist circumference, as well as fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3.
Sprod et al. [16] (2012) RCT Breast Cancer Stage 0–IIIb Characteristics of cancer treatment = Surgery (lymphadenectomy and mastectomy) post-surgery radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
N = 19
Female = 19
Exp (n = 9)
Age (yr) = 54.33 (3.55)
Con (n = 10)
Age (yr) = 52.70 (2.11)
Exp = Tai chi chuan exercise.
Length = 12 weeks.
Duration = 60 min/ses.
Frequency = 3 ses/wk.
Intensity = low to moderate
Con = Standard support therapy control (SST)
Cytokine levels and fasting blood.
  1. RCT Randomized Controlled Trial, Exp Experimental Group, Con Control Group
  2. Data are presented as mean (SD)