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Table 8 Factors associated * with hospice death(versus hospital death) in children and young people with cancer, England 1993–2014(N = 12,774)

From: Place of death in children and young people with cancer and implications for end of life care: a population-based study in England, 1993–2014

Variable Value Year of death
1993–2000 2001–2004 2005–2014
Age(ref: 20–24) 0–14 0.44(0.34 to 0.58) 0.77(0.57 to 1.05) 0.95(0.80 to 1.12)
15–19 0.52(0.38 to 0.71) 0.62(0.42 to 0.92) 0.88(0.71 to 1.10)
Gender Male vs female 0.82(0.65 to 1.03) 0.81(0.62 to 1.07) 0.92(0.79 to 1.07)
N. contributing CoDs(ref: 0) 1 0.77(0.61 to 0.98) 0.46(0.33 to 0.65) 0.56(0.46 to 0.67)
2 0.22(0.13 to 0.37) 0.18(0.10 to 0.33) 0.15(0.10 to 0.23)
3+ 0.02(0.00 to 0.17) 0.10(0.04 to 0.24) 0.10(0.06 to 0.17)
Deprivation(ref: 5 least deprived) 1(most deprived) 1.06(0.76 to 1.48) 0.83(0.53 to 1.30) 0.90(0.70 to 1.16)
2 0.92(0.64 to 1.32) 1.07(0.69 to 1.65) 0.85(0.66 to 1.10)
3 0.72(0.49 to 1.05) 1.17(0.75 to 1.81) 1.03(0.80 to 1.32)
4 0.77(0.52 to 1.13) 1.03(0.65 to 1.64) 0.90(0.69 to 1.18)
Rural/Urban indicator Rural vs Urban 1.02(0.73 to 1.45) 1.11(0.76 to 1.64) 0.97(0.77 to 1.22)
SCN region (ref: London) Cheshire & Merseyside 2.02(1.08 to 3.78) 1.12(0.52 to 2.39) 0.86(0.55 to 1.32)
East Midlands 1.02(0.53 to 1.96) 0.69(0.34 to 1.42) 0.90(0.64 to 1.28)
East of England 1.55(0.86 to 2.79) 1.59(0.93 to 2.73) 1.23(0.90 to 1.68)
Greater Manchester, Lancashire and south Cumbria 3.35(2.07 to 5.44) 1.64(0.97 to 2.77) 1.05(0.75 to 1.47)
North East, north Cumbria, and the Hambleton & Richmondshire districts of North Yorkshire 0.94(0.43 to 2.04) 0.63(0.22 to 1.81) 0.88(0.55 to 1.42)
South East Coast 2.46(1.42 to 4.26) 1.66(0.91 to 3.03) 1.43(1.03 to 1.99)
South West 2.51(1.44 to 4.39) 1.43(0.77 to 2.62) 1.78(1.31 to 2.41)
Thames Valley 1.56(0.69 to 3.51) 0.95(0.39 to 2.34) 1.70(1.17 to 2.47)
Wessex 1.37(0.65 to 2.89) 0.59(0.20 to 1.71) 0.99(0.58 to 1.67)
West Midlands 2.04(1.22 to 3.41) 0.95(0.52 to 1.74) 1.11(0.81 to 1.52)
Yorkshire & The Humber 2.60(1.59 to 4.27) 1.78(1.05 to 3.00) 1.09(0.80 to 1.48)
  1. *The association is measured by proportion ratios(PRs) and 95 % confidence intervals. PR > 1 indicates a higher probability of hospice death, <1 lower chance of hospice death, PR = 1 indicates no association. The PRs were derived from modified Poisson regression model, adjusting for the listed variables in the main analysis but with the omission of the Underlying CoD, number of CYP deaths and number of CYP cancer deaths at SCN region level. -: not estimable