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Table 1 Main characteristics of cases and controls from the study population

From: Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of breast cancer: The Spanish Multi-Case-control (MCC) study

Variable Category Cases Controls p
Age, mean ± sd   56.4 ± 12.6 59.0 ± 13.2 <0.001
Geographical area, n (%) Asturias 70 (4.0) 121 (6.4)  
Barcelona 292 (16.8) 380 (20.1)  
Cantabria 141 (8.1) 188 (9.9)  
Gerona 47 (2.7) 57 (3.0)  
Guipuzcoa 226 (13.0) 255 (13.5)  
Huelva 105 (6.1) 79 (4.2)  
Leon 227 (13.1) 202 (10.7)  
Madrid 341 (19.6) 365 (19.3)  
Navarra 226 (13.0) 181 (9.6)  
Valencia 61 (3.5) 67 (3.5) <0.001
Family history of breast cancer, n (%) No 1288 (75.0) 1628 (85.7)  
First-degree relative 256 (14.9) 166 (8.7)  
Second-degree relative 174 (10.1) 106 (5.8) <0.001
Educational level, n (%) Less than primary school 268 (15.4) 327 (17.3)  
Primary school 565 (32.6) 581 (30.7)  
Secondary school 573 (33.0) 585 (30.9)  
University 330 (19.0) 402 (21.2) 0.10
Tobacco smoking, n (%) Never smoker 972 (56.0) 1141 (60.2)  
Former smoker 450 (25.9) 397 (21.0)  
Current smoker 314 (18.1) 357 (18.8) 0.002
Body Mass Index (kg/m2), n (%) <18.5 30 (1.7) 43 (2.3)  
18.5–24.9 789 (45.5) 899 (47.4)  
25.0–29.9 590 (34.0) 601 (31.7)  
≥30 327 (18.8) 352 (18.6) 0.31
Energy intake (kcal/day), mean ± sd   1861 ± 644 1754 ± 566 <0.001
Ethanol intake (g/day), mean ± sd   6.2 ± 11.5 5.3 ± 9.5 0.01
Red meat intake (g/day), mean ± sd   26.9 ± 20.2 25.2 ± 19.9 0.01
Fruit intake (g/day), mean ± sd   363 ± 239 365 ± 222 0.87
Vegetable intake (g/day), mean ± sd   196 ± 133 198 ± 119 0.60
Dairy intake (g/day), mean ± sd   321.1 ± 177.1 328.7 ± 176.7 0.24
Number of deliveries, mean ± sd   1.9 ± 1.5 2.0 ± 1.6 0.03
Menopausal status, n (%) Premenopausal 702 (40.4) 628 (33.1)  
Postmenopausal 1034 (59.6) 1267 (66.9) <0.001
Age at first delivery, mean ± sd   26.5 ± 5.0 26.5 ± 4.7 0.82
Age at menarche, mean ± sd   12.8 ± 1.5 12.9 ± 1.5 0.02
Age at menopause, mean ± sd   48.8 ± 5.4 48.5 ± 5.3 0.18
Previous use of hormonal contraceptives, n (%)   789 (45.5) 868 (45.8) 0.83