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Table 3 Multivariate cox regression analysis of training cohort

From: Nomograms to predict survival after colorectal cancer resection without preoperative therapy

  Cancer-specific survival Overall survival
Covariates HR 95 % CI P HR 95 % CI P
Sex (Male vs. Female) 1.142 1.094–1.193 <0.0001 1.246 1.202–1.293 <0.0001
Race (ref, White)
 Black 1.199 1.130–1.273 <0.0001 1.191 1.132–1.254 <0.0001
 Yellow (Chinese, Korean, Japanese) 0.784 0.702–0.875 <0.0001 0.713 0.649–0.784 <0.0001
 Other 1.030 0.935–1.135 0.5449 0.996 0.915–1.083 0.9203
Marital status at diagnosis (ref, Married)
 Divorced 1.175 1.092–1.265 <0.0001 1.214 1.139–1.293 <0.0001
 Single (never married) 1.235 1.161–1.313 <0.0001 1.277 1.211–1.346 <0.0001
 Widowed 1.189 1.118–1.264 <0.0001 1.224 1.165–1.285 <0.0001
 Unknown 1.014 0.886–1.161 0.8424 1.145 1.029–1.275 0.0131
CEA status (Positive vs. negative) 1.589 1.517–1.664 <0.0001 1.486 1.431–1.543 <0.0001
Extent of surgery (ref, Loc/seg resection)
 Subtotal/hemisection 1.067 1.012–1.125 0.0156 1.040 0.995–1.087 0.0824
 Total resection 1.269 1.139–1.414 <0.0001 1.180 1.073–1.297 0.0007
Tumor site (ref, Proximal colon)
 Distal colon 0.910 0.860–0.962 <0.0001 0.918 0.876–0.962 0.0004
 Overlapping lesion of colon 1.090 0.909–1.307 0.3545 1.111 0.952–1.298 0.1824
 Rectum 1.002 0.935–1.074 0.9516 0.981 0.926–1.040 0.5211
Tumor size (ref, ≤ 5 cm)
 >5 cm 1.029 0.984–1.076 0.2050 1.026 0.989–1.066 0.1741
 Unknown 1.141 1.035–1.258 0.0078 1.075 0.991–1.166 0.0810
Histology (ref, Adenocarcinoma)
 Signet ring cell carcinoma 1.409 1.220–1.626 <0.0001 1.380 1.209–1.575 <0.0001
Tumor grade (ref, G1/G2)
 G3/G4 1.278 1.219–1.339 <0.0001 1.184 1.137–1.233 <0.0001
 Unknown 1.143 0.987–1.323 0.0736 1.049 0.927–1.186 0.4501
pT stage (ref, pT1)
 pT2 1.567 1.312–1.872 <0.0001 1.398 1.254–1.558 <0.0001
 pT3 2.949 2.516–3.457 <0.0001 1.796 1.628–1.981 <0.0001
 pT4a 4.429 3.746–5.237 <0.0001 2.508 2.247–2.799 <0.0001
 pT4b 4.760 4.021–5.634 <0.0001 2.746 2.456–3.069 <0.0001
Metastasis (M1 vs. M0) 4.075 3.876–4.284 <0.0001 3.357 3.213–3.508 <0.0001
  1. HR hazard ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confident interval, ref reference category, Loc/seg resection Local/segmental resection, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen