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Table 2 Univariate cox regression analysis of training cohort

From: Nomograms to predict survival after colorectal cancer resection without preoperative therapy

Variables Cancer-specific survival Overall survival
HR 95 % CI P HR 95 % CI P
Sex
 Female ref    ref   
 Male 1.060 1.018–1.104 0.0049 1.055 1.019–1.091 0.0021
Race
 White ref    ref   
 Black 1.278 1.206–1.354 <0.0001 1.157 1.101–1.216 <0.0001
 Yellow (Chinese, Korean and Japanese) 0.762 0.682–0.850 <0.0001 0.701 0.638–0.770 <0.0001
 Other 0.974 0.884–1.072 0.5850 0.870 0.800–0.946 0.0011
Marital status at diagnosis
 Married (including separated) ref    ref   
 Divorced 1.171 1.088–1.259 <0.0001 1.175 1.103–1.251 <0.0001
 Single (never married) 1.332 1.255–1.414 <0.0001 1.316 1.250–1.386 <0.0001
 Widowed 1.376 1.305–1.450 <0.0001 1.746 1.675–1.821 <0.0001
 Unknown 1.045 0.914–1.196 0.5175 1.246 1.120–1.387 0.0001
CEA status
 Negative ref    ref   
 Positive 3.174 3.042–3.313 <0.0001 2.449 2.366–2.535 <0.0001
Tumor site
 Proximal colon ref    ref   
 Distal colon 0.892 0.850–0.935 <0.0001 0.835 0.803–0.869 <0.0001
 Overlapping lesion of colon 1.382 1.153–1.657 0.0005 1.294 1.108–1.510 0.0011
 Rectum 0.880 0.833–0.931 <0.0001 0.825 0.787–0.865 <0.0001
Tumor size
 ≤ 5 cm ref    ref   
 > 5 cm 1.429 1.370–1.491 <0.0001 1.316 1.270–1.363 <0.0001
 Unknown 0.821 0.746–0.904 0.0001 0.806 0.745–0.873 <0.0001
Extent of surgery
 Local/segmental resection ref    ref   
 Subtotal/hemisection 1.161 1.114–1.211 <0.0001 1.181 1.141–1.223 <0.0001
 Total resection 1.527 1.373–1.699 <0.0001 1.388 1.264–1.525 <0.0001
Histology
 Adenocarcinoma ref    ref   
 Signet ring cell carcinoma 2.648 2.304–3.044 <0.0001 2.180 1.916–2.480 <0.0001
Tumor grade
 G1/G2 ref    ref   
 G3/G4 1.903 1.820–1.989 <0.0001 1.614 1.553–1.678 <0.0001
 Unknown 1.007 0.871–1.164 0.9283 0.942 0.834–1.064 0.3372
pT stage
 pT1 ref    ref   
 pT2 1.854 1.556–2.209 <0.0001 1.662 1.495–1.848 <0.0001
 pT3 6.161 5.285–7.182 <0.0001 3.150 2.871–1.848 <0.0001
 pT4a 13.422 11.43–15.760 <0.0001 5.775 5.21–6.400 <0.0001
 pT4b 17.429 14.844–20.464 <0.0001 7.324 6.607–8.120 <0.0001
Metastasis
 M0 ref    ref   
 M1 7.733 7.414–8.066 <0.0001 4.953 4.773–5.139 <0.0001
  1. HR hazard ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confident interval, ref reference category, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen