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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer

From: Nomograms to predict survival after colorectal cancer resection without preoperative therapy

Variables Training cohort Validation cohort Test cohort
(n = 27700) (n = 3158) (n = 25214)
Sex, n, %
 Female 14077 50.8 1605 50.8 12702 50.4
 Male 13623 49.2 1553 49.2 12512 49.6
Age, year, median, range 67 18–99 67 18–99 67 18–99
Race, n, %
 White 21722 78.4 2428 76.9 19710 78.2
 Black 3422 12.4 412 13.0 3106 12.3
 Yellow (Chinese, Korean and Japanese) 1229 4.4 169 5.4 1075 4.3
 Other 1327 4.8 149 4.7 1323 5.2
Marital status at diagnosis, n, %
 Married (including separated) 15900 57.4 1812 57.3 14166 56.2
 Divorced 2378 8.6 266 8.4 2297 9.1
 Single (never married) 3519 12.7 406 12.9 3553 14.1
 Widowed 5185 18.7 601 19.1 4363 17.3
 Unknown 718 2.6 73 2.3 835 3.3
CEA status, n, %
 Negative 15550 56.1 1803 57.1 14824 58.8
 Positive 12150 43.9 1355 42.9 10390 41.2
Tumor site, n, %
 Proximal colon (cecum to splenic flexure) 14341 51.7 1621 51.3 13790 54.7
 Distal colon (descending to sigmoid colon) 8015 29.0 952 30.2 7441 29.5
 Overlapping lesion of colon 284 1.0 24 0.8 275 1.1
 Rectum (including rectosigmoid junction) 5060 18.3 561 17.7 3708 14.7
Tumor size, n, %
 ≤ 5 cm 16861 60.9 1966 62.3 15178 60.2
 > 5 cm 9120 32.9 998 31.6 8557 33.9
 Unknown 1719 6.2 194 6.1 1479 5.9
Extent of surgery, n, %
 Local/segmental resection 12879 46.5 1505 47.7 11464 45.5
 Subtotal/hemisection 13991 50.5 1549 49.0 13137 52.1
 Total resection 830 3.0 104 3.3 613 2.4
Histology, n, %
 Adenocarcinoma 27375 98.8 3116 98.7 24975 99.1
 Signet ring cell carcinoma 325 1.2 42 1.3 239 0.9
Tumor grade, n, %
 Well to Moderately differentiated (G1 + G2) 21137 76.3 2435 77.1 19450 77.2
 Poorly to Undifferentiated (G3 + G4) 5931 21.4 646 20.5 5202 20.6
 Unknown 632 2.3 77 2.4 562 2.2
pT stage, n, %
 pT1 2381 8.6 272 8.6 2662 10.6
 pT2 3987 14.4 447 14.2 3844 15.2
 pT3 17094 61.7 1980 62.7 14887 59.0
 pT4a 2244 8.1 256 8.1 2242 8.9
 pT4b 1994 7.2 203 6.4 1579 6.3
pN stage, n, %
 N0 14069 50.8 1615 51.1 13378 53.1
 N1a 3445 12.4 402 12.7 3005 11.9
 N1b 3960 14.3 456 14.4 3378 13.4
 N2a 3055 11.0 356 11.2 2611 10.4
 N2b 3171 11.5 329 10.4 2842 11.2
Lymph node count, mean, sd 15.7 9.6 15.8 9.6 18.4 9.6
Lymph node ratio, mean, IQR 0.16 0–0.24 0.16 0–0.22 0.13 0–0.18
Metastasis, n, %
 M0 22512 81.3 2587 81.9 21112 83.7
 M1 5188 18.7 571 18.1 4102 16.3
 Follow-up 63 1–107 64 1–107 34 1–59
Number of events 9341 13359 1055 1496 5659 7689
1-year cumulative survival 87.9 84.1 88.6 84.7 89.8 86.5
3-year cumulative survival 73.8 67.1 75.1 68.7 77.3 70.9
5-year cumulative survival a 66.6 57.2 67.7 58.6 70.8 60.6
  1. aSurvival probabilities of the test cohort at 5 years were approximated at 59 months
  2. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, sd standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, CSS cancer-specific survival, OS overall survival