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Table 5 Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of malignant melanoma (n = 762) according to total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee consumption in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, 1991–2013 (N = 104,080)

From: Coffee consumption and the risk of malignant melanoma in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study

  Total coffee consumption Filtered coffee consumption Instant coffee consumption Boiled coffee consumption
Age-adjusted Multivariablea Age-adjusted Multivariableb Age-adjusted Multivariableb Age-adjusted Multivariableb
HR HR HR HR HR HR HR HR
95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI 95 % CI
Light consumers 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 ≤1 cup/day
Low-moderate consumers 0.93 (0.76–1.14) 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.85 (0.71–1.02) 0.80 (0.66–0.98) 1.34 (1.01–1.77) 1.17 (0.88–1.57) 1.01 (0.74–1.39) 1.13 (0.81–1.58)
 >1–3 cups/day
High-moderate consumers 0.77 (0.63–0.96) 0.85 (0.68–1.05) 0.77 (0.62–0.96) 0.77 (0.61–0.97) 0.92 (0.52–1.63) 0.85 (0.48–1.52) 0.74 (0.48–1.13) 0.89 (0.58–1.39)
 >3–5 cups/day
Heavy consumers 0.72 (0.56–0.92) 0.88 (0.67–1.14) 0.68 (0.50–0.92) 0.74 (0.53–1.02) 1.56 (0.78–3.10) 1.45 (0.72–2.92) 0.66 (0.38–1.14) 0.87 (0.49–1.55)
 >5 cups/day
p trend 0.002 0.20 0.002 0.02 0.10 0.39 0.07 0.72
  1. Cat. categorical, cont. continuous
  2. aAdjusted for smoking status, duration of education (cat.), body mass index (cat.), physical activity level (cont.), alcohol consumption (g/day) (cat.), area of residence, original hair color, number of moles larger than 5 mm (cat.), average number of sunburns per year (cont.)
  3. bAdjusted for smoking status, duration of education (cat.), body mass index (cat.), physical activity level (cont.), alcohol consumption (g/day) (cat.), area of residence, original hair color, number of moles larger than 5 mm (cat.), average number of sunburns per year (cont.), and mutually adjusted for the consumption of coffee brewed with two other methods (cat.)