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Table 5 Cox univariate analysis of relative risk of death from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by β-catenin and PROX1 expression (n = 156)

From: PROX1 and β-catenin are prognostic markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Covariate n HR 95 % CI p-value
PROX1 expression
 Low 80 1.00   1.000
 High 74 0.70 0.49–1.00 0.053
 Missing 2    
β-catenin expression
 Low 53 1.00   1.000
 High 100 0.61 0.42–0.88 0.008
 Missing 3    
Combined PROX1 and β-catenin expression
 Low 38 1.00   1.000
 Moderate 56 0.69 0.22–1.01 0.103
 High 58 0.52 0.33–0.83 0.006
 Missing 4    
Age at operation     
  < 65 77 1.00   1.000
  ≥ 65 79 1.06 0.74–1.50 0.752
Gender     
 Male 86 1.00   1.000
 Female 70 0.93 0.65–1.32 0.668
T     
 1 12 1.00   1.000
 2 40 1.02 0.47–2.24 0.957
 3 101 1.65 0.80–3.41 0.178
 4 3 4.09 1.07–15.66 0.040
N     
 0 48 1.00   1.000
 1 108 1.80 1.20–2.70 0.004
Grade     
 1 22 1.00   1.000
 2 90 1.14 0.66–1.96 0.644
 3 21 2.05 1.04–4.02 0.038
 Missing 23    
Stage     
 IA, and IB 27 1.00   1.000
 IIA, and IIB 126 2.01 1.19–3.41 0.009
 III 3 5.23 1.49–18.34 0.010
Stage and LNR     
 IA, IB, and IIA 47 1.00   1.000
 IIB, III and LNR <20 % 73 1.50 0.97–2.31 0.071
 IIB, III and LNR >20 % 36 3.12 1.91–5.11 <0.001
Perivascular invasion
 No 43 1.00   1.000
 Yes 83 1.89 1.27–2.83 0.002
 Missing 30    
Perineural invasion
 No 30 1.00   1.000
 Yes 101 1.44 0.90–2.31 0.126
 Missing 25    
Postoperative adjuvant therapy
 No 75 1.00   1.000
 Yes 79 0.65 0.45–0.92 0.016
 Missing 2    
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, LNR metastasized lymph node ratio. Stage and LNR covariate was formed to cover both in multivariate analysis