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Table 3 Table showing the breakdown of demographics, radiological parameters and outcome scores for patients who underwent BKP and those treated with TLSO alone. It can be seen that there is no significant difference between demographics between groups, but that patients who underwent BKP had a significantly higher presentation VASB score than patients treated non-operatively. Post treatment patients treated with BKP had a better EQ-5D score than those treated with TLSO alone

From: Spinal disease in myeloma: cohort analysis at a specialist spinal surgery centre indicates benefit of early surgical augmentation or bracing

  BKP patients = 84 TLSO patients = 94 Statistical significance (* = p < 0.05)
Mean ± StDev/Median (range) Mean ± StDev/Median (range)
Age 65.2 ± 10.7 years 65.6 ± 12.4 years p = 0.845
Gender:    p = 0.738
 Male 53 (63.1 %) 57 (60.6 %)
 Female 31 (36.9 %) 37 (39.4 %)
Disease status:    p = 0.670
 Newly diagnosed 62 (73.8 %) 72 (76.6 %)
 Relapsed 22 (26.2 %) 22 (23.40 %)
Chain Isotype:    p = 0.989
 IgG 41 (48.8 %) 49 (52.1 %)
 IgA 12 (14.3 %) 10 (10.6 %)
 Light chain 12 (14.3 %) 17 (18.1 %)
 Other 5 (5.9 %) 4 (4.3 %)
Missing 14 (16.7 %) 14 (14.9 %)
Time from diagnosis to presentation 232 days (98–996 days) 141 (55–992 days) p = 0.349
Number of patients who died 6 (7.14 %) 14 (14.9 %) p = 0.103
Radiological parameters    
 Number of fractures per patient 3 fractures (2–5 fractures) 3 fractures (1–5 fractures) p = 0.282
 Thoracic Kyphosis (TK) 56.4° ± 18.5° 53.2° ± 19.4° p = 0.289
 Lumbar Lordosis (LL) 47.2° ± 17.4° 48.6° ± 16.8° p = 0.601
 Sagittal Vertical Axis (SVA) 58.7 ± 49.0 mm 49.6 ± 55.0 mm p = 0.288
 Mid-thoracic Kyphosis (MTK) 36.9° ± 16.7° 38.8° ± 18.0° p = 0.491
 Thoracolumbar Kyphosis (TLK) 22.6° ± 16.2° 18.9° ± 14.6° p = 0.140
 SINS Score 13.0° ± 1.6° 12.4° ± 2.5° p = 0.076
Patient reported outcome scores    
 EQ-5D (presentation) 0.442 ± 0.220 0.463 ± 0.230 p = 0.526
 ODI (presentation) 51.0 ± 16.6 46.2 ± 19.0 p = 0.085
 VASB (presentation) 6.3 ± 2.3 5.5 ± 2.9 p = 0.031*
 EQ-5D (6 weeks post treatment) 0.593 ± 0.192 0.480 ± 0.240 p = 0.008*
 ODI (6 weeks post treatment) 42.6 ± 16.2 40.8 ± 22.1 p = 0.637
 VASB (6 weeks post treatment) 2.8 ± 2.3 3.5 ± 3.1 p = 0.135
  1. P values which are statistically significant have been highlighted with an '*'