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Table 1 Results of the radiological parameters recorded at presentation. A negative sagittal vertical axis (SVA) indicates that the centre of gravity of the spine falls behind the superior endplate of S1. The mean thoracic kyphosis (TK) is higher and the mean lumbar lordosis (LL) is lower (more kyphotic) than in the literature reflecting our patient population. It can also be seen that this is mostly due to kyphosis in the mid thoracic (MTK) and thoracolumbar (TLK) regions [1922]

From: Spinal disease in myeloma: cohort analysis at a specialist spinal surgery centre indicates benefit of early surgical augmentation or bracing

  TK (°) LL (°) SVA (mm) MTK (°) TLK (°)
Mean 56.2 48.4 53.5 38.4 21.3
Std. deviation 18.2 16.5 52.1 16.8 16.2
Minimum 9 3 −52 5 −10
Maximum 106 94 198 85 67
Population mean 40 ± 10 56 ± 13 7 ± 32 15 ± 4 1 ± 9