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Fig. 8 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 8

From: Everolimus downregulates estrogen receptor and induces autophagy in aromatase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer cells

Fig. 8

Everolimus treatment induces autophagy, which mediates insensitivity. a MCF-7, MCF-7:5C and MCF-7:2A cells were treated with vehicle (a-c), 50 μM chloroquine (CQ) (d-f), 20 nM everolimus (EVE) (g-i) or both EVE and CQ (j-l) for 48 h and imaged using electron microscopy. Arrows indicate double membrane bound autophagosomes and arrow heads indicate pleomorphic mitochondria and dilated endoplasmic reticulum, which could also be seen in untreated MCF-7:5C cells. Images a-c are shown at 2000 X magnification while d-f, g-i and j-l are shown at 5000X, 8000X and 6000X respectively. M, mitochondria; N, nucleus; ER, endoplasmic reticulum. b Autophagosomes in a minimum of 10 random cells were recorded using de-identified samples. Values are average autophagosomes per cell and represent three trials from two separate experiments. c Cells were seeded in 24-well plates and treated with vehicle, 20 nM everolimus (EVE), 50 μM chloroquine or both for 7 days. The percentage of viable cells is shown as compared to vehicle treated cells. Bar graphs represent the data from three independent experiments in duplicate and values are mean ± SD. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01

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