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Fig. 2 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Increased toll-like receptors and p53 levels regulate apoptosis and angiogenesis in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: mechanism of action of P-MAPA biological response modifier

Fig. 2

a–l Photomicrographs of the urinary bladder from CONTROL (a, b, c), MNU (d, e, f), MNU-BCG (g, h, i) and MNU-P-MAPA (j, k, l) groups. a, b, c, j and k Normal urothelium composed of 2–3 layers: a basal cell layer (arrowhead), an intermediate cell layer (arrow), and a superficial or apical layer composed of umbrella cells (open arrowhead). d, e and f pT1: neoplastic cells arranged in small groups (arrows) invading the lamina propria; keratinizing squamous metaplasia (Sm). g, h and i pTa characterized by fibrovascular stalk and frequent papillary branching with increased cellular size. l Papillary hyperplasia. al Lp lamina propria, M muscular layer, Ur urothelium

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