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Table 2 Prognostic factors for overall and cancer-specific mortality

From: Better survival in right-sided versus left-sided stage I - III colon cancer patients

   Cox regression for overall survival Cox regression for cancer-specific survival
   Unadjusteda Adjustedb Unadjusteda Adjustedb
   HR (95 % CI) p c HR (95 % CI) p c HR (95 % CI) p c HR (95 % CI) p c
Cancer side Left-sided Reference <0.001 Reference 0.002 Reference <0.001 Reference 0.156
  Right-sided 1.32 (1.29–1.36)   1.05 (1.02–1.09)   1.23 (1.19–1.27)   1.03 (0.99–1.08)  
Tumor stage Stage I Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
(AJCC 6th ed.) Stage II 1.65 (1.59–1.71)   1.40 (1.35–1.45)   3.00 (2.81–3.20)   2.47 (2.31–2.65)  
  Stage III 2.34 (2.26–2.42)   2.30 (2.22–2.39)   6.41 (6.02–6.81)   5.79 (5.42–6.18)  
Number of retrieved <12 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
Regional lymph 12–16 0.90 (0.87–0.92)   0.82 (0.79–0.84)   0.92 (0.88–0.96)   0.78 (0.75–0.82)  
Nodes 17+ 0.75 (0.73–0.77)   0.69 (0.67–0.72)   0.81 (0.78–0.84)   0.66 (0.64–0.69)  
Grading G1 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  G2 1.20 (1.14–1.26)   1.05 (1.00–1.10)   1.46 (1.36–1.56)   1.10 (1.03–1.18)  
  G3 1.76 (1.67–1.85)   1.28 (1.21–1.35)   2.60 (2.41–2.81)   1.51 (1.40–1.64)  
  G4 2.02 (1.83–2.22)   1.50 (1.36–1.66)   2.88 (2.53–3.27)   1.69 (1.49–1.93)  
  Unknown 0.91 (0.84–1.00)   1.04 (0.95–1.14)   1.03 (0.91–1.18)   1.20 (1.06–1.37)  
Histology Adenocarcinoma Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  Adenocarcinoma in adenomatous polyp 0.53 (0.50–0.56)   0.80 (0.76–0.86)   0.36 (0.33–0.40)   0.71 (0.64–0.79)  
  Adenocarcinoma in villous adenoma 0.77 (0.71–0.83)   0.93 (0.86–1.01)   0.62 (0.55–0.70)   0.92 (0.82–1.03)  
  Adenocarcinoma in tubulovillous adenoma 0.63 (0.60–0.67)   0.84 (0.80–0.89)   0.44 (0.40–0.47)   0.73 (0.67–0.79)  
  Mucinous carcinoma 1.12 (1.08–1.17)   1.03 (0.99–1.07)   1.14 (1.08–1.20)   1.05 (0.99–1.10)  
CEA C0-stage Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  C1-stage 1.91 (1.84–1.97)   1.61 (1.56–1.67)   2.29 (2.19–2.40)   1.79 (1.71–1.87)  
  Unknown/Borderline 1.42 (1.38–1.46)   1.37 (1.33–1.41)   1.49 (1.43–1.55)   1.48 (1.42–1.54)  
Operation Segmental resection Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  Hemi/subtotal colectomy 1.27 (1.24–1.30)   1.08 (1.05–1.12)   1.26 (1.22–1.31)   1.11 (1.06–1.16)  
  Other 1.32 (1.18–1.48)   1.34 (1.19–1.50)   1.66 (1.44–1.91)   1.57 (1.36–1.81)  
Year 2004 to 2006 Reference <0.001 Reference 0.258 Reference <0.001 Reference 0.542
  2007 to 2009 0.93 (0.91–0.96)   1.02 (0.99–1.05)   0.93 (0.89–0.96)   1.02 (0.98–1.06)  
  2010 to 2012 0.87 (0.83–0.90)   0.98 (0.94–1.03)   0.87 (0.83–0.92)   0.99 (0.94–1.05)  
Age Up to 49 years Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  50 to 64 years 1.14 (1.07–1.22)   1.20 (1.12–1.28)   0.94 (0.87–1.01)   1.04 (0.97–1.13)  
  65 to 79 years 2.18 (2.05–2.33)   2.30 (2.15–2.45)   1.37 (1.28–1.47)   1.57 (1.45–1.69)  
  80+ years 5.15 (4.83–5.49)   5.10 (4.77–5.45)   2.69 (2.50–2.89)   2.88 (2.66–3.11)  
Gender male Reference 0.614 Reference <0.001 Reference 0.001 Reference <0.001
  female 1.01 (0.98–1.03)   0.75 (0.73–0.77)   1.06 (1.02–1.09)   0.84 (0.81–0.87)  
Ethnicity Caucasian Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  African-American 1.03 (0.99–1.07)   1.17 (1.13–1.22)   1.19 (1.13–1.25)   1.24 (1.18–1.30)  
  Other/Unknown 0.70 (0.67–0.74)   0.77 (0.73–0.81)   0.81 (0.76–0.87)   0.83 (0.78–0.89)  
Marital status Married Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001 Reference <0.001
  Single 1.32 (1.27–1.37)   1.46 (1.40–1.52)   1.40 (1.33–1.47)   1.41 (1.33–1.48)  
  Widowed 2.21 (2.15–2.28)   1.42 (1.37–1.46)   1.91 (1.84–1.99)   1.34 (1.28–1.40)  
  Other/Unknown 1.25 (1.20–1.30)   1.28 (1.23–1.33)   1.21 (1.15–1.28)   1.19 (1.13–1.26)  
  1. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (Wald type)
  2. The number of positive regional lymph nodes and T-stage were excluded from analysis to avoid collinearity with stage
  3. AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, CEA Carcinoembryonic antigen
  4. aUnivariate Cox regression analysis, bmultivariable Cox regression analysis full model, clikelihood ratio tests