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Table 1 Characteristics of selected lung cancer cases and frequency matched controls: Yunnan, China 1992-1998

From: Absence of an association of human polyomavirus and papillomavirus infection with lung cancer in China: a nested case–control study

Characteristic Cases (n = 183) Controls (n = 217) P
  n % n %  
Age      0.914
 40–49 3 (1.6) 4 (1.8)  
 50–59 58 (31.7) 71 (32.7)  
 60–69 104 (56.8) 125 (57.6)  
 70–79 18 (9.8) 17 (7.8)  
Education levela      0.043
 None 82 (44.8) 87 (40.1)  
 K–5 89 (48.6) 98 (45.2)  
 6–8 9 (4.9) 15 (6.9)  
 9–12 2 (1.1) 5 (2.3)  
 College 1 (0.5) 12 (5.5)  
Body Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2)      0.230
 Underweight (<18.5) 18 (9.8) 36 (16.6)  
 Normal (18.5–24.99) 138 (75.4) 150 (69.1)  
 Overweight (25–29.99) 24 (13.1) 29 (13.4)  
 Obese (≥30) 3 (1.6) 2 (0.9)  
Ever smoked tobaccob 177 (96.7) 197 (90.8) 0.016
Pack-years, median (IQRc) 36 (24–54) 32 (19–49) 0.132
Arsenicd, median (IQRc) 10745 (6695–15347) 9420 (4888–16802) 0.057
Radone, median (IQRc) 498 (277–783) 417 (171–681) 0.132
Family history of lung cancerf 3 (1.6) 6 (2.8) 0.449
Any prior lung diseaseg 88 (48.1) 98 (45.2) 0.559
 Asthma or hay fever 25 (13.7) 24 (11.1) 0.429
 Tuberculosis (self-report) 8 (4.4) 14 (6.5) 0.363
 Chronic bronchitis 72 (39.3) 78 (35.9) 0.484
 Silicosis 20 (10.9) 18 (8.3) 0.371
Lung cancer histology      NA
 Squamous cell carcinoma 72 (39.3) 0 (−)  
 Adenocarcinoma 31 (16.9) 0 (−)  
 Small cell carcinoma 25 (13.7) 0 (−)  
 Mixed 19 (10.4) 0 (−)  
 Other 2 (1.1) 0 (−)  
 Not obtained 34 (18.6) 0 (−)  
Lung cancer site      NA
 Main bronchus 15 (8.2) 0 (−)  
 Upper lobe bronchus or lung 76 (41.5) 0 (−)  
 Middle lobe lung 19 (10.4) 0 (−)  
 Lower lobe bronchus or lung 60 (32.8) 0 (−)  
 Other parts of bronchus or lung 3 (1.6) 0 (−)  
 Bronchus and lung NOS 10 (5.5) 0 (−)  
  1. a Highest educational level started
  2. b Having ever smoked tobacco was defined as having smoked cigarettes, pipes, or water pipes for 6 months or longer, or providing an age for beginning or quitting smoking, or providing a non-zero measure of tobacco smoked daily
  3. c IQR, interquartile range
  4. d Measured in iaem, index of arsenic exposure months, a time weighted arsenic exposure measurement (mg/m3 x months)
  5. e Measured in wlm, working level month
  6. f Family history of lung cancer was defined as having any immediate family member (parents, siblings, children, or spouse) who received a doctor’s diagnosis of lung cancer
  7. g Any prior lung disease was defined as a prior diagnosis of asthma or hay fever, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, or silicosis.