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Table 3 A clinical risk analysis associated with the IRE device and procedure

From: Focal vs extended ablation in localized prostate cancer with irreversible electroporation; a multi-center randomized controlled trial

Potential risks of IRE ablation and procedure Side effect/Adverse event
General Anaesthesia Aspiration, urinary retention, extended muscle blockage, anaesthetic drug toxicity, pain, coma, death
Electric current of IRE Cardiac arrhythmias, severe muscle contraction, electrical shock, death
Multiple Prostate Biopsies Bleeding, infection, pain, urinary retention, pain
IRE needle placement and ablation Damage to urethra/bowel/bladder/nerve with consequent side effectsa, bleeding, infection, pain
Insufficient IRE treatment Residual or recurrent tumour
Insufficient Muscle Blockade Muscle strains or damage, electrodes displaced, trauma
  1. ahaematuria, hematoma, infection, abscess formation, fistula, sepsis, death, urinary retention, urinary or faecal incontinence, urethra stricture, erectile dysfunction, necrosis of affected tissue