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Table 7 Mean serum chemistry parameters 29 days after the start date in male dogs

From: GMP-grade α-TEA lysine salt: a 28-Day oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study with a 28-Day recovery period in Beagle dogs

   Vehicle 100 mg/kg 300 mg/kg 1500 mg/kg Unit
   Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD N  
Males Alanine transaminase (ALT) 33.5 9.9 4 32 8.6 4 37.3 6.8 4 51 25.9 4 U/L
Aspartate transaminase (AST) 34.8 3.2 4 36.5 5.7 4 46 8.8 4 49.8 5.9 4 U/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) 96 24.4 4 104.3 37.1 4 116 71.9 4 227 315.9 4 U/L
Lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) 57.8 6.4 4 61 18.7 4 70 21.8 4 55 18.9 4 U/L
Total bilirubin (TBILI) 0.03 0.05 4 0.03 0.05 4 0.03 0.05 4 0 0 4 mg/dL
Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 4 U/L
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) 246.3 79.8 4 185.3 61.2 4 272.3 145.6 4 133 29.1 4 U/L
Sodium (Na) 148.5 1.3 4 148 0.8 4 147.8 0.5 4 148 1.4 4 mmol/L
Potassium (K) 4.35 0.31 4 4.5 0.26 4 4.08 0.32 4 4.48 0.21 4 mmol/L
Chloride (CL) 115.8 1 4 115 0.8 4 115 1.3 4 118.8 0.5 4 mmol/L
Calcium (CA) 10.83 0.25 4 10.88 0.33 4 11.05 0.13 4 10.35 0.29 4 mg/dL
Inorganic phosphorus (PHOS) 5.13 0.75 4 5.45 0.29 4 4.68 0.26 4 3.98 0.32 4 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 18.3 2.1 4 18.8 3.3 4 19.3 1.9 4 24.3 1.7 4 mg/dL
Creatinine (CREA) 0.6 0.14 4 0.6 0 4 0.58 0.1 4 0.55 0.08 4 mg/dL
Glucose (GLU) 102.5 4 4 96.3 9 4 96.8 11.2 4 80.8 8.4 4 mg/dL
Total protein (TPRO) 5.25 0.3 4 5.38 0.28 4 5.38 0.24 4 4.45 0.42 4 g/dL
Albumin (ALB) 3.33 0.26 4 3.23 0.29 4 3.18 0.21 4 2.45 0.1 4 g/dL
Globulin (GLOB) 1.93 0.1 4 2.15 0.06 4 2.2 0.14 4 2 0.34 4 g/dL
Albumin/Globulin ratio (A/G) 1.729 0.141 4 1.502 0.152 4 1.448 0.14 4 1.247 0.184 4 Ratio
Cholesterol (CHOL) 168.8 35.4 4 176 28 4 152.3 19.4 4 104.5 183.4 4 mg/dL
Triglycerides (TRIG) 34 8.1 4 41.3 9.7 4 33.3 5.6 4 45.5 14.3 4 mg/dL
Females Alanine transaminase (ALT) 27.3 5.1 4 26.3 1.9 4 35.8 10.2 4 45.5 20.9 4 U/L
Aspartate transaminase (AST) 29 4.7 4 36.3 5.3 4 31.5 3.1 4 45.8 19.5 4 U/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) 98.8 12.4 4 78.8 22.5 4 178 131.5 4 251.3 211.2 4 U/L
Lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) 82.3 25.8 4 74 19.8 4 69.5 5.9 4 73 19.5 4 U/L
Total bilirubin (TBILI) 0.03 0.05 4 0.05 0.06 4 0.03 0.05 4 0.03 0.05 4 mg/dL
Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) 0 0 4 0.3 0.5 4 0 0 4 0 0 4 U/L
Creatine phosphokinase (CK) 162.8 54.3 4 198.8 44.1 4 162.3 40.6 4 147.3 47.6 4 U/L
Sodium (Na) 147.8 1 4 148.5 1.9 4 148.5 0.6 4 148.3 1 4 mmol/L
Potassium (K) 4.4 0.34 4 4.53 0.17 4 4.38 0.31 4 4.65 0.34 4 mmol/L
Chloride (CL) 114.5 1.7 4 115.5 1 4 115.5 1 4 117.8 2.8 4 mmol/L
Calcium (CA) 10.7 0.35 4 11.05 0.38 4 11.05 0.37 4 10.25 0.84 4 mg/dL
Inorganic phosphorus (PHOS) 5.03 0.54 4 4.25 0.9 4 4.4 0.47 4 4.35 0.58 4 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 17.5 2.4 4 14.5 1.3 4 18.5 1.3 4 23.5 7.9 4 mg/dL
Creatinine (CREA) 0.5 0.08 4 0.58 0.1 4 0.53 0.1 4 0.63 0.05 4 mg/dL
Glucose (GLU) 103.3 4.8 4 102.8 11.5 4 108.8 7.8 4 84.8 2.1 4 mg/dL
Total protein (TPRO) 5.28 0.17 4 5.35 0.31 4 5.3 0.22 4 4.65 0.3 4 g/dL
Albumin (ALB) 3.35 0.17 4 3.38 0.25 4 3.35 0.19 4 2.8 0.22 4 g/dL
Globulin (GLOB) 1.93 0.1 4 1.98 0.1 4 1.95 0.17 4 1.85 0.13 4 g/dL
Albumin/Globulin ration (A/G) 1.745 0.142 4 1.71 0.109 4 1.729 0.191 4 1.516 0.118 4 Ratio
Cholesterol (CHOL) 167.5 24.6 4 179 22.4 4 147.3 10.6 4 98.3 13 4 mg/dL
Triglycerides (TRIG) 40 9.8 4 42 8.8 4 43.5 5.8 4 50 8.3 4 mg/dL
  1. Male dogs received indicated doses of α-TEA lysine salt daily for 28 days. After 28 daily treatments, blood was collected from 4 dogs per treatment group and analyzed