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Table 2 Response of participants to statements on risk factors of breast cancer

From: Breast cancer literacy among higher secondary students: results from a cross-sectional study in Western Nepal

Statement Response Total (n = 516) Male (n = 233) Female (n = 283) p-valuec
Early menarche in a woman increases the risk of developing breast cancer.a Yes 99 (19.2) 59 (25.3) 40 (14.1) 0.006*
No 106 (20.5) 44 (18.9) 62 (21.9)
Don’t know 311 (60.3) 130 (55.8) 181 (64.0)
Women who have delayed menopause are at greater risk of breast cancer. a Yes 146 (28.3) 84 (36.1) 62 (21.9) 0.002**
No 62 (12.0) 24 (10.3) 38 (13.4)
Don’t know 308 (59.7) 125 (53.6) 183 (64.7)
Use of oral contraceptives increases a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer.a Yes 184 (35.7) 84 (36.1) 100 (35.3) 0.876
No 63 (12.2) 30 (12.9) 33 (11.7)
Don’t know 269 (52.1) 119 (51.0) 150 (53.0)
Breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing breast cancer.a Yes 255 (49.4) 123 (52.8) 132 (46.6) 0.381
No 69 (13.4) 29 (12.4) 40 (14.1)
Don’t know 192 (37.2) 81 (34.8) 111 (39.3)
Physical exercise reduces the risk of developing breast cancer.a Yes 322 (62.4) 154 (66.1) 168 (59.4) 0.287
No 43 (8.3) 18 (7.7) 25 (8.8)
Don’t know 151 (29.3) 61 (26.2) 90 (31.8)
A hard blow to the breast may cause a woman to get breast cancer later in life.b Yes 181 (35.1) 81 (34.8) 100 (35.3) 0.565
No 77 (14.9) 39 (16.7) 38 (13.4)
Don’t know 258 (50.0) 113 (48.5) 145 (51.3)
The constant irritation of a tight bra can, over time, cause breast cancer.b Yes 129 (25.0) 49 (21.0) 80 (28.3) 0.121
No 89 (17.2) 39 (16.7) 50 (17.7)
Don’t know 298 (57.8) 145 (62.3) 153 (54.0)
In some women, being overweight increases the risk of developing breast cancer.a Yes 188 (36.4) 101 (43.3) 87 (30.7) 0.011*
No 86 (16.7) 33 (14.2) 53 (18.7)
Don’t know 242 (46.9) 99 (42.5) 143 (50.6)
A woman who bears her first child before the age of 30 is more likely to develop breast cancer than a woman who bears her first child after the age of 30.b Yes 131 (25.4) 69 (29.6) 62 (21.9) 0.067
No 282 (54.7) 49 (21.0) 54 (19.1)
Don’t know 103 (19.9) 115 (49.4) 167 (59.0)
Women with no known risk factors for breast cancer rarely get breast cancer.b Yes 167 (32.4) 84 (36.1) 83 (29.3) 0.202
No 60 (11.6) 23 (9.9) 37 (13.1)
Don’t know 289 (56.0) 126 (54.0) 163 (57.6)
Some types of fibrocystic breast disease (noncancerous breast lumps) increase a woman’s risk of breast cancer.a Yes 292 (56.6) 123 (52.8) 169 (59.7) 0.074
No 32 (6.2) 20 (8.6) 12 (4.2)
Don’t know 192 (37.2) 90 (38.6) 102 (36.1)
Breast cancer is more common in 65-year-old women than in 40-year-old women.a Yes 115 (22.3) 52 (22.3) 63 (22.3) 0.054
No 160 (31.0) 84 (36.1) 76 (26.9)
Don’t know 241 (46.7) 97 (41.6) 144 (50.8)
The most frequently occurring cancer in women is breast cancer.a Yes 253 (49.0) 113 (48.4) 140 (49.5) 0.018*
No 107 (20.7) 60 (25.8) 47 (16.6)
Don’t know 156 (30.3) 60 (25.8) 96 (33.9)
Women over age 70 rarely get breast cancer.b Yes 159 (30.8) 68 (29.2) 91 (32.2) 0.434
No 88 (17.1) 45 (19.3) 43 (15.2)
Don’t know 269 (52.1) 120 (51.5) 149 (52.6)
Most breast lumps are cancerous.b Yes 218 (42.2) 96 (41.2) 122 (43.1) 0.064
No 87 (16.9) 49 (21.0) 38 (13.4)
Don’t know 211 (40.9) 88 (37.8) 123 (43.5)
  1. Data are frequency (percentage)
  2. aStatement is true
  3. bStatement is false
  4. cp-value derived from the chi-square test of association
  5. *p <0.05, **p < 0.005