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Table 3 Chemotherapy and molecular-targeted agents for refractory thymic carcinoma

From: Correlation between S-1 treatment outcome and expression of biomarkers for refractory thymic carcinoma

Authors Agent Study design Target Number Response rate (DCR) PFS (month) OS (month)
Cytotoxic agents
Loehrer et al. [29] Pemetrexed Ph II - 11 NR 1.3 N/A
Wakelee et al. [33] Amrubicin Ph II - 19 10.5 % 8.5 18.1
Liang et al. [46] Pemetrexed Retrosp - 10 10.0 % 6.5 12.7
Palmieri et al. [47] Capecitabine + gemcitabine Ph II - 8 37.5 % 6 (3–10) N/A
The present study S-1 Retrosp - 14 42.9 % 8.1 30.0
Molecular targeted agents
Thomas et al. [13] Sunitinib Ph II c-KIT, PDGFR 23 26 % (65 %) 7.2 Not reached
Zucali et al. [14] Everolimus Ph II mTOR 12 25 % (41 %) 12.1a 24.0a
Rajan et al. [48] Cixutumumab Ph II IGF-1R 12 0 % 1.7 8.4
Giaccone et al. [49] Belinostat Ph II HDAC 16 0 % (50 %) 5.8 12.4
Besse et al. [50] Milciclib (PHA-848125 AC) Ph II CDK, src family 26 - - -
Bedano et al. [51] Erlotinib + bevacizumab Ph II EGFR, VEGF 7 0 N/A N/A
Kurup et al. [52] Gefitinib Ph II EGFR 7 0 N/A N/A
Giaccone et al. [53] Imatinib Ph II c-KIT mutation 5 0 N/A N/A
Loehrer et al. [54] Octreotide + prednisone Ph II somatostatin receptor 6 0 4.5 23.4
Gubens et al. [55] Saracatinib (AZD0530) Ph II src family 9 0 3.6 6.7
  1. n number, PFS progression-free survival, DCR disease control rate, OS overall survival, Ph II phase II, Retrosp retrospective, IGF-1R insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, HDAC histone deacetylase, PDGFR platelet-derived growth factor, CDK cyclin-dependent kinase, mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin. EGFR epidermal growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
  2. aSurvival data include thymoma and thymic carcinoma