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Table 4 Expression of TGF-β signaling molecules according to Lauren’s classification

From: Differences in TGF-β1 signaling and clinicopathologic characteristics of histologic subtypes of gastric cancer

   Intestinal-type Diffuse-type P-value
(n = 33) (n = 35)
TGF-β1 Low 13 23 0.050
  High 20 (61 %) 12 (34 %)  
TβR2 Low 0 12 <0.001
  High 33 (100 %) 23 (66 %)  
Smad4 Low 23 25 0.588
  High 8 (26 %) 9 (27 %)  
p-ERK1/2 Low 3 12 0.008
  High 14 (82 %) 7 (37 %)  
p-Akt Low 9 11 0.796
  High 23 (72 %) 24 (69 %)  
TAK1 Low 4 6 0.758
  High 27 (87 %) 29 (84 %)  
  1. TGF-β1 transforming growth factor-β1, T βR2 TGF-β receptor 2, p-ERK phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, TAK1 TGF-activated kinase1