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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses of the relationship between serum vitamin D and survival

From: The relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and survival in newly diagnosed advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

Variables Univariate model HR (95 % CI) Full model HR (95 % CI) Final model HR (95 % CI)
Serum vitamin D    
 > = 20 ng/ml (reference)    
 <20 ng/ml 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.99 (0.8–1.3)  
Gender    
 Female (reference)    
 Male 1.3 (1.01–1.6)* 1.1 (0.9–1.5)  
Stage    
 III (reference)    
 IV 2.3 (1.8–3.1)* 2.3 (1.7–3.2)* 2.3 (1.7–3.1)*
CTCA hospital    
 Philadelphia, PA (reference)    
 Zion, IL 3.2 (1.8–5.8)* 1.9 (0.9–4.1) 2.0 (0.9–4.2)
 Tulsa, OK 5.8 (3.0–11.2)* 4.0 (1.8–8.8)* 4.1 (1.9–8.9)*
Histologic subtype    
 Adenocarcinoma (reference)    
 Squamous cell 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
 Others 2.3 (1.4–3.8)* 1.8 (1.02–3.2)* 1.7 (0.9–2.8)
SGA    
 Well-nourished (reference)    
 Moderately-severely malnourished 2.0 (1.6–2.6)* 1.4 (1.02–1.8)* 1.4 (1.1–1.9)*
ECOG score    
 0–1 (reference)    
 2–4 1.6 (1.2–2.1)* 1.2 (0.9–1.6)  
Season of diagnosis    
 Summer (reference)    
 Fall 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 1.4 (0.9–1.9)  
 Winter 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)  
 Spring 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.6)  
Smoking status    
 Never (reference)    
 Former 1.5 (1.1–2.1)* 1.4 (1.01–2.1)* 1.5 (1.1–2.2)*
 Current 1.6 (1.1–2.1)* 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.4 (0.9–1.9)
 Age (continuous) 1.0 (0.99–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.02)  
 Serum vitamin D (continuous) 1.0 (0.99–1.01)   
 BMI (continuous) 0.97 (0.95–0.99)* 0.99 (0.97–1.02)  
 Serum albumin (continuous) 0.44 (0.35–0.54)* 0.46 (0.34–0.61)* 0.46 (0.35–0.61)*
  1. (SGA Subjective Global Assessment, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, CTCA Cancer Treatment Centers of America, PA Pennsylvania, IL Illinois, OK Oklahoma, BMI Body Mass Index, ngcpaml nanograms per milliliter, HR Hazard Ratio, CI Confidence Interval)
  2. *P < = 0.05